Molecular gastronomy is a subdiscipline of food science that seeks to investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking. Its program includes three axes, as cooking was recognized to have three components, which are social, artistic and technical. Molecular cuisine is a modern style of cooking, and takes advantage of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines.
The term "molecular gastronomy" was coined in 1988 by late Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti and the French INRA chemist Hervé This. Some chefs associated with the term choose to reject its use, preferring other terms such as multi sensory cooking, modernist cuisine, culinary physics, and experimental cuisine.
- Professors Evelyn G. Halliday and Isabel T. Noble 1.1.1
- Professor Belle Lowe of Iowa State College (1886–1961) 1.1.2
- Marie-Antoine Carême (1784–1833) 1.1.3
- Precursors 1.1
- Current objectives 2.1
- Original objectives 2.2
- Example areas of investigation 3.1
- Eponymous recipes 3.2
As a style of cooking 4
- Chefs 4.1
- Techniques, tools and ingredients 4.2
See also 5
- People 5.1
- Restaurants 5.2
- Subjects 5.3
- References 6
- External links 7
- Further reading 8
There are many branches of food science that study different aspects of food, such as safety, microbiology, preservation, chemistry, engineering and physics. Until the advent of molecular gastronomy, there was no formal discipline dedicated to studying the chemical processes of cooking in the home and in restaurants - as opposed to food preparation for the mass market. Food science has mostly been concerned with industrial food production and while the disciplines may overlap with each other to varying degrees, they are considered separate areas of investigation.
Though many disparate examples of the scientific investigation of cooking exist throughout history, the creation of the discipline of molecular gastronomy was intended to bring together what had previously been fragmented and isolated investigation into the chemical and physical processes of cooking into an organized discipline within food science to address what the other disciplines within food science either do not cover, or cover in a manner intended for scientists rather than cooks. These mere investigations into the scientific process of cooking have unintentionally evolved into a revolutionary practice that is now prominent in today's culinary world.
The term "molecular and physical gastronomy" was coined in 1988 by Hungarian physicist Nicholas Kurti and French physical chemist Hervé This. In 1992, it became the title for a set of workshops held in Erice, Italy (originally titled "Science and Gastronomy") that brought together scientists and professional cooks for discussions about the science behind traditional cooking preparations. Eventually, the shortened term "Molecular Gastronomy" also became the name of the scientific discipline co-created by Kurti and This, based on exploring the science behind traditional cooking methods.
Kurti and This have been the co-directors of the "Molecular and Physical Gastronomy" meetings in Erice and had considered the creation of a formal discipline around the subjects discussed in the meetings. The American food science writer Harold McGee, was invited for the first Workshop. After Kurti's death in 1998, the name of the Erice workshops was changed by This to "The International Workshop on Molecular Gastronomy 'N. Kurti'". This remained the sole director of the subsequent workshops from 1999 through 2004 and continues his research in the field of Molecular Gastronomy today.
University of Oxford physicist Nicholas Kurti was an enthusiastic advocate of applying scientific knowledge to culinary problems. He was one of the first television cooks in the UK, hosting a black and white television show in 1969 entitled "The Physicist in the Kitchen" where he demonstrated techniques such as using a syringe to inject hot mince pies with brandy in order to avoid disturbing the crust. That same year, he held a presentation for the Royal Society of London (also entitled "The Physicist in the Kitchen") in which he is often quoted to have stated:
|“||I think it is a sad reflection on our civilization that while we can and do measure the temperature in the atmosphere of Venus we do not know what goes on inside our soufflés.||”|
— Nicholas Kurti
During the presentation Kurti demonstrated making meringue in a vacuum chamber, the cooking of sausages by connecting them across a car battery, the digestion of protein by fresh pineapple juice and a reverse baked alaska - hot inside, cold outside — cooked in a microwave oven. Kurti was also an advocate of low temperature cooking, repeating 18th century experiments by the English scientist Benjamin Thompson by leaving a 2 kg (4.4 lb) lamb joint in an oven at 80 °C (176 °F). After 8.5 hours, both the inside and outside temperature of the lamb joint were around 75 °C (167 °F), and the meat was tender and juicy. Together with his wife, Giana Kurti, Nicholas Kurti edited an anthology on food and science by fellows and foreign members of the Royal Society.
Hervé This started collecting "culinary precisions" (old kitchen wives' tales and cooking tricks) in the early 1980s and started testing these precisions to see which ones held up; his collection now numbers some 25,000. In 1995, he also has received a PhD in Physical Chemistry of Materials for which he wrote his thesis on "La gastronomie moléculaire et physique" (molecular and physical gastronomy), served as an adviser to the French minister of education, lectured internationally, and was invited to join the lab of Nobel Prize winning molecular chemist Jean-Marie Lehn. This has published several books in French, four of which have been translated into English, including Molecular Gastronomy: Exploring the Science of Flavor, Kitchen Mysteries: Revealing the Science of Cooking, Cooking: The Quintessential Art, and Building a Meal: From Molecular Gastronomy to Culinary Constructivism. He currently publishes a series of essays in French and hosts free monthly seminars on molecular gastronomy at the INRA in France. He gives free and public seminars on molecular gastronomy any month, and once a year, he gives a public and free course on molecular gastronomy. Hervé This also authors a website and a pair of blogs on the subject in French and publishes monthly collaborations with French chef Pierre Gagnaire on Gagnaire's website.
Though she is rarely credited, the origins of the Erice workshops (originally entitled "Science and Gastronomy") can be traced back to the cooking teacher
The dictionary definition of molecular gastronomy at Wiktionary
- Blumenthal, Thomas Keller and Harold McGee; The Observer, London, Sunday December 10, 2006
- Kurti, Nicholas, Chemistry and Physics in the Kitchen, April 1994, Scientific American Magazine
- Hoelscher, Dietmar, Molecular kitchen and moleculare mixology you can do what you imagine (2008 DVD) ISBN 978-3-00-022641-0
- Kurti, Nicholas, But the Crackling Is Superb, Institute of Physics Publishing, 1998 ISBN 978-0-85274-301-0
- McGee, Harold, The Curious Cook. North Point Press, Berkeley, 1990.
- McGee, Harold, On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. Scribner, New York, 2004. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.
- This, Hervé, Building a Meal: From Molecular Gastronomy to Culinary Constructivism, Columbia University Press 2009 ISBN 978-0-231-14466-7
- This, Hervé, Pierre Gagnaire: Cooking: The Quintessential Art, University of California Press 2008 ISBN 978-0-520-25295-0
- This, Hervé, Pierre Gagnaire, Nicolas de Bonnefons: Alchimistes aux Fourneaux. Flammarion, 2007 ISBN 978-2-08-201534-9
- This, Hervé, Kitchen Mysteries: Revealing the Science of Cooking. Columbia University Press, New York, 2007 ISBN 978-0-231-14170-3
- This, Hervé, Molecular Gastronomy: Exploring the Science of Flavor. Columbia University Press, New York, 2006. ISBN 978-0-231-13312-8
- This, Hervé, Pierre Gagnaire: La cuisine c'est de l'amour, de l'art, de la technique (2006, 309p) ISBN 2-7381-1678-7
- This, Hervé, Casseroles et éprouvettes (2002, 239p) ISBN 2-84245-039-6
- This, Hervé, Traité élémentaire de cuisine (2002, 237p) ISBN 2-7011-3303-3
- This, Hervé, La casserole des enfants (1998, 127p) ISBN 2-7011-2309-7
- This, Hervé, Révélations gastronomiques (1995) ISBN 2-7011-1756-9
- This, Hervé, Les Secrets de la casserole (1993, 222 p) ISBN 2-7011-1585-X
- Wolke, Robert L., "What Einstein Told His Cook: Kitchen Science Explained" (2002, 350p) ISBN 0-393-01183-6
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- "Adam Melonas's Progressive cuisine Blog". Madrid Lab. Retrieved 2012-02-16.
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- Heston, Blumenthal. The Fat Duck Cookbook. p. 124.
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Cyelon cinnamon rods are ignited just before service and left to smoulder as the dish is eaten, creating a curtain of smoky cinnamon aroma
- "bacon decorated with butterscotch and dehydrated apple, served threaded on a horizontal wire".
- "Bite the Antenna - Gear - Food News". CHOW. 2006-11-09. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- "You’re Mispronouncing "Achatz" - Feature - Food News". CHOW. 2007-01-12. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- "Molecular Gastronomy: New Cooking Techniques with Familiar Food Flavors". Chef 2 Chef. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
- Lisa Abend, slate.com Fish Foam and Spherified Mango Juice: Will Spanish avant-garde cuisine stand the test of time? March 26, 2008
- Carbon dioxide source, for adding bubbles and making foams
- Foams can also be made with an immersion blender
- Liquid nitrogen, for flash freezing and shattering
- Ice cream maker, often used to make unusual flavors, including savory
- Anti-griddle, for cooling and freezing
- Thermal immersion circulator for sous-vide (low temperature cooking)
- Food dehydrator
- Maltodextrin - can turn a high-fat liquid into a powder
- Sugar substitutes
- Lecithin - an emulsifier and non-stick agent
- Hydrocolloids such as starch, gelatin, pectin and natural gums - used as thickening agents, gelling agents, emulsifying agents and stabilizers, sometimes needed for foams
- Transglutaminase - a protein binder, called meat glue
- Spherification - a caviar-like effect
- Syringe, for injecting unexpected fillings
- Edible paper made from soybeans and potato starch, for use with edible fruit inks and an inkjet printer
- Aromatic accompaniment: gases trapped in a bag, a serving device, or the food itself; an aromatic substance presented as a garnish or creative serveware; or a smell produced by burning
- Presentation style is often whimsical or avant-garde, and may include unusual serviceware
- Unusual flavor combinations (food pairings) are favored, such as combining savory and sweet
- Using ultrasound to achieve more precise cooking times
Techniques, tools and ingredients
In February 2011, Nathan Myhrvold published the Modernist Cuisine, which led many chefs to further classify molecular gastronomy versus modernist cuisine. Myhrvold believes that his cooking style should not be called molecular gastronomy.
Despite their central role in the popularisation of science based cuisine, both Adria and Blumenthal have expressed their frustration with the common mis-classification of their food and cooking as "molecular gastronomy", On 10th December 2006 Heston Blumenthal and Harold McGee published a 'Statement on the "New Cookery" in the Observer in order to summarise what they saw as the central tenets of modern cuisine. Ferran Adria of El Bulli and Thomas Keller of the French Laundry and Per Se signed up to this and together released a joint statement in 2006 clarifying their approach to cooking, stating that the term "molecular gastronomy" was coined in 1992 for a single workshop that did not influence them, and that the term does not describe any style of cooking.
Chefs who are often associated with molecular gastronomy because of their embrace of science include Heston Blumenthal, Grant Achatz, Ferran Adrià, José Andrés, Sat Bains, Richard Blais, Marcel Vigneron, Sean Brock, Homaro Cantu, Michael Carlson, Wylie Dufresne, Pierre Gagnaire, Will Goldfarb, Adam Melonas, Randy Rucker, Kevin Sousa, Sean Wilkinson, Will LaRue, Dennis Maroudas, RJ Cooper and Laurent Gras.
No singular name has ever been applied in consensus, and the term "molecular gastronomy" continues to be used often as a blanket term to refer to any and all of these things - particularly in the media. Ferran Adrià hates the term "molecular gastronomy" and prefers 'deconstructivist' to describe his style of cooking. A 2006 open letter by Ferran Adria, Heston Blumenthal, Thomas Keller and Harold McGee published in The Times used no specific term, referring only to "a new approach to cooking" and "our cooking".
- Avant-garde cuisine
- Culinary constructivism
- Cocina de vanguardia - term used by Ferran Adrià
- Emotional cuisine
- Experimental cuisine
- Forward-thinking movement - term used at Grant Achatz's Alinea
- Kitchen science
- Modern cuisine
- Modernist cuisine, which shares its name with a cookbook, and which is endorsed by Ferran Adrià of El Bulli and David Chang
- Molecular cuisine
- Molecular cooking
- New cuisine
- New cookery
- Nueva cocina
- Progressive cuisine
- Techno-emotional cuisine—term preferred by elBulli research and development chef Ferran Adrià
- Technologically forward cuisine
- Vanguard cuisine
Other names for the style of cuisine practiced by these chefs include:
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the term started to be used to describe a new style of cooking in which some chefs began to explore new possibilities in the kitchen by embracing science, research, technological advances in equipment and various natural gums and hydrocolloids produced by the commercial food processing industry. It has since been used to describe the food and cooking of a number of famous chefs, though many of them do not accept the term as a description of their style of cooking.
The term molecular gastronomy was originally intended to refer only to the scientific investigation of cooking, though it has been adopted by a number of people and applied to cooking itself or to describe a style of cuisine.
As a style of cooking
- Gibbs - infusing vanilla pods in egg white with sugar, adding olive oil and then microwave cooking. Named after physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839–1903).
- Vauquelin - using orange juice or cranberry juice with added sugar when whipping eggs to increase the viscosity and to stabilize the foam, and then microwave cooking. Named after Nicolas Vauquelin (1763–1829), one of Lavoisier's teachers.
- Baumé - soaking a whole egg for a month in alcohol to create a coagulated egg. Named after the French chemist Antoine Baumé (1728–1804).
New dishes named after famous scientists include:
- How ingredients are changed by different cooking methods
- How all the senses play their own roles in our appreciation of food
- The mechanisms of aroma release and the perception of taste and flavor
- How and why we evolved our particular taste and flavor sense organs and our general food likes and dislikes
- How cooking methods affect the eventual flavor and texture of food ingredients
- How new cooking methods might produce improved results of texture and flavor
- How our brains interpret the signals from all our senses to tell us the "flavor" of food
- How our enjoyment of food is affected by other influences, our environment, our mood, how it is presented, who prepares it, etc.
Example areas of investigation
However, This later recognized points 3, 4 and 5 as being not entirely scientific endeavours (more application of technology and educational), and has since revised the primary objectives of molecular gastronomy.
- Investigating culinary and gastronomical proverbs, sayings and old wives' tales
- Exploring existing recipes
- Introducing new tools, ingredients and methods into the kitchen
- Inventing new dishes
- Using molecular gastronomy to help the general public understand the contribution of science to society
The original fundamental objectives of molecular gastronomy were defined by This in his doctoral dissertation as:
- the social phenomena linked to culinary activity
- the artistic component of culinary activity
- the technical component of culinary activity
Looking for the mechanisms of culinary transformations and processes (from a chemical and physical point of view) in three areas:
The objectives of molecular gastronomy, as defined by Hervé This, are:
The concept of molecular gastronomy was perhaps presaged by Marie-Antoine Carême, one of the most famous French chefs, who said in the early 19th century that when making a food stock "the broth must come to a boil very slowly, otherwise the albumin coagulates, hardens; the water, not having time to penetrate the meat, prevents the gelatinous part of the osmazome from detaching itself."
Marie-Antoine Carême (1784–1833)
In the second century BC, the anonymous author of a Benjamin Thompson, later knighted Count Rumford, who studied culinary transformations and made many proposals and inventions to improve them, for example by inventing a special coffee pot for better brewing. There are too many scientists who have contributed to the science of food preparation to list here. — Hervé This, 2006
According to Hervé:
Belle Lowe was born near Utica, Missouri on February 7, 1886. She graduated from Chillicothe High School and then received a teaching certificate (1907) from the Kirksville State Normal School in Kirksville, Missouri. She also received a Ph. B. (1911) and an M.S. (1934) from the University of Chicago. In 1957, Lowe received an honorary Ph.D. from Iowa State College (University). In addition to "Experimental Cookery", she published numerous articles on the subject of the science of cooking. She died in 1961.
In 1932 the academic Belle Lowe, then the professor of Food and Nutrition at Iowa State College, published a book entitled Experimental Cookery: From The Chemical And Physical Standpoint which became a standard textbook for home economics courses across the United States. The book is an exhaustively researched look into the science of everyday cooking referencing hundreds of sources and including many experiments. At a length of over 600 pages with section titles such as "The Relation Of Cookery To Colloidal Chemistry", "Coagulation Of Proteins", "The Factors Affecting The Viscosity Of Cream And Ice Cream", "Syneresis", "Hydrolysis Of Collagen" and "Changes In Cooked Meat And The Cooking Of Meat", the volume rivals or exceeds the scope of many other books on the subject, at a much earlier date.
Professor Belle Lowe of Iowa State College (1886–1961)
The book includes chapters such as "The Chemistry of Milk", "The Chemistry of Baking Powders and Their Use in Baking", "The Chemistry of Vegetable Cookery" and "Determination of Hydrogen Ion Concentration" and contains numerous illustrations of lab experiments including such things as a Distillation Apparatus for Vegetable Samples and a Pipette for Determining the Relative Viscosity of Pectin Solutions. The professors had previously published The Hows and Whys of Cooking in 1928.
In 1943 the University of Chicago Press published a book entitled Food Chemistry and Cookery by the then University of Chicago Associate Professor of Home Economics Evelyn G. Halliday and University of Minnesota Associate Professor of Home Economics Isabel T Noble. In the foreword of the 346 page book the authors state that, "The main purpose of this book is to give an understanding of the chemical principles upon which good practices in food preparation and preservation are based." 
Professors Evelyn G. Halliday and Isabel T. Noble
 The idea of using techniques developed in
- Chemical Reactions in Cooking
- Heat Conduction, Convection and Transfer
- Physical aspects of food/liquid interaction
- When liquid meets food at low temperature
- Solubility problems, dispersion, texture/flavour relationship
- Stability of flavour
Examples of sessions within these meetings have included:
- 1992 - First Meeting
- 1995 - Sauces, or dishes made from them
- 1997 - Heat in cooking
- 1999 - Food flavors - how to get them, how to distribute them, how to keep them
- 2001 - Textures of Food: How to create them?
- 2004 - Interactions of food and liquids
The focus of the workshops each year were as follows:
Up until 2001, The International Workshop on Molecular Gastronomy "N. Kurti" (IWMG) was named the "International Workshops of Molecular and Physical Gastronomy" (IWMPG). The first meeting was held in 1992 and the meetings have continued every few years thereafter until the most recent in 2004. Each meeting encompassed an overall theme broken down into multiple sessions over the course of a few days.