|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||169.111 g/mol|
|Appearance||White crystalline powder|
|Melting point||232 °C (450 °F; 505 K)|
|Solubility in water||74 g/100 mL|
|LD50||15800 mg/kg (oral, rat)[Gov. 1]|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally-occurring non-essential amino acids.[Manuf. 1] MSG is found in tomatoes, Parmesan, potatoes, mushrooms, and other vegetables and fruits.
MSG is used in the food industry as a flavor enhancer with an umami taste that intensifies the meaty, savory flavor of food, as naturally occurring glutamate does in foods such as stews and meat soups. This was first prepared by Japanese biochemist Kikunae Ikeda, who was seeking to isolate and duplicate the savory taste of kombu, an edible seaweed used as a base for many Japanese soups. MSG as a flavor enhancer balances, blends and rounds the perception of other tastes. It is particularly popular in Japanese and Chinese cuisine.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given MSG its generally recognized as safe (GRAS) designation. While a popular belief holds that large doses of MSG can cause headaches and other feelings of discomfort, in controlled studies scientists have been unable to consistently trigger reactions.[Gov. 2] The European Union classifies it as a food additive permitted in certain foods and subject to quantitative limits. MSG has the HS code 29224220 and the E number E621.[Gov. 3]
Names and synonyms 1
- Chemical names and identifiers 1.1
- Trade names 1.2
- History 2
- Use 3
- Australia and New Zealand 4.1
- United States 4.2
- Production 5
- Chemical properties 6
- See also 7
- Government 8.1
- Manufacturers and suppliers 8.2
- Other 8.3
- External links 9
Names and synonyms
The following are alternative names for MSG:[Gov. 1][Manuf. 2][Manuf. 3]
Chemical names and identifiers
- Monosodium glutamate
- Sodium 2-aminopentanedioate
- Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, monohydrate
- L-Glutamic acid, monosodium salt, monohydrate
- L-Monosodium glutamate monohydrate
- Monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate
- MSG monohydrate
- Sodium glutamate monohydrate
- Accent, produced by B&G Foods Inc., Heritage, New Jersey, US[Manuf. 4][Manuf. 5]
- Ajinomoto, produced by Ajinomoto, 26 countries, head office Japan[Manuf. 6][Manuf. 7]
- Tasting Powder
Kikunae Ikeda of Tokyo Imperial University isolated glutamic acid as a taste substance in 1908 from the seaweed Laminaria japonica (kombu) by aqueous extraction and crystallization, calling its taste umami.[Manuf. 8] Ikeda noticed that dashi, the Japanese broth of katsuobushi and kombu, had a unique taste not yet scientifically described (not sweet, salty, sour or bitter).[Manuf. 8] To verify that ionized glutamate was responsible for umami, he studied the taste properties of glutamate salts: calcium, potassium, ammonium and magnesium glutamate. All these salts elicited umami and a metallic taste due to the other minerals. Of them, sodium glutamate was the most soluble and palatable and the easiest to crystallize. Ikeda called his product "monosodium glutamate", and submitted a patent to produce MSG;[Gov. 4] the Suzuki brothers began commercial production of MSG in 1909 as Aji-no-moto ("essence of taste").[Manuf. 9][Manuf. 10]
Pure MSG is reported not to have a pleasant taste until it is combined with a savory aroma.[Manuf. 11] The basic sensory function of MSG is attributed to its ability to enhance savory taste-active compounds when added in the proper concentration. The optimum concentration varies by food; in clear soup, the pleasure score rapidly falls with the addition of more than one gram of MSG per 100 ml. There is also an interaction between MSG and salt (sodium chloride) and other umami substances, such as nucleotides.
MSG can be used to reduce the intake of sodium, which contributes to hypertension, heart disease and stroke.[Gov. 5] With appropriate MSG use, salt can be reduced by 30 to 40 percent without a perceived reduction in saltiness.
The sodium content (in mass percent) of MSG—12 percent—is about one-third of that in sodium chloride (39 percent).[Manuf. 12] Although other salts of glutamate have been used in low-salt soups, they are less palatable than MSG.[Manuf. 13]
MSG has been used for more than 100 years to season food, with a number of studies conducted on its safety. International and national bodies governing food additives currently consider MSG safe for human consumption as a flavor enhancer.[Gov. 6] An MSG symptom complex was originally called "Chinese restaurant syndrome" when Robert Ho Man Kwok reported symptoms he felt after an American-Chinese meal. Kwok suggested possible reasons for his symptoms, including alcohol (from cooking with wine), sodium and MSG; however, a number of symptoms have become associated with MSG. The anecdotal list of non-specific symptoms has grown. Under normal conditions, humans can metabolize relatively large quantities of glutamate. The median lethal dose (LD50) is between 15 and 18 g/kg body weight in rats and mice, respectively, five times greater than the LD50 of salt (3 g/kg in rats). The use of MSG as a food additive and the natural level of glutamic acid in foods are not toxicological concerns in humans.[Gov. 6]
A 1995 report from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded that MSG is safe when "eaten at customary levels" and, although a subgroup of otherwise-healthy individuals develop an MSG symptom complex when exposed to 3g of MSG in the absence of food, MSG causality has not been established because the symptom reports are anecdotal.
According to the report, there is no data to support the role of glutamate in chronic disease. A controlled, double-blind, multi-location clinical trial failed to demonstrate a relationship between the MSG symptom complex and actual MSG consumption. No statistical association has been demonstrated, and the few responses were inconsistent. No symptoms were observed when MSG was administered with food.
Adequately controlling for experimental bias includes a double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design (DBPC) and administration by capsule, because of the unique aftertaste of glutamates. In a study by Tarasoff and Kelly (1993), 71 fasting participants were given 5g of MSG and then a standard breakfast. There was one reaction (to the placebo, in a self-identified MSG-sensitive individual). A study by Geha et al. (2000) tested the reaction of 130 subjects with a reported sensitivity to MSG. Multiple DBPC trials were performed, with subjects exhibiting at least two symptoms continuing. Two people out of the 130 responded to all four challenges. Because of the low prevalence, the researchers concluded that a response to MSG was not reproducible.
Studies exploring MSG's role in obesity have yielded mixed results. Although several studies have investigated anecdotal links between MSG and asthma, current evidence does not support a causal association. Since glutamates are important neurotransmitters in the human brain, playing a key role in learning and memory, ongoing neurological studies indicate a need for further research.
It has been suggested that a fear of MSG may reflect anti-Asian racism, with MSG being seen as an 'Oriental', alien arrival in Western cooking, likely to be dangerous. Food critic Jeffrey Steingarten argued that fear of MSG should be seen as a Western-centric mindset, lacking awareness of its common use in Far Eastern cooking without apparent problems: "If MSG is a problem, why doesn't everyone in China have a headache?"
Australia and New Zealand
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) has extensively documented MSG.[Gov. 7] The FSANZ MSG technical report concludes, "There is no convincing evidence that MSG is a significant factor in causing systemic reactions resulting in severe illness or mortality. The studies conducted to date on Chinese Restaurant Syndrome (CRS) have largely failed to demonstrate a causal association with MSG. Symptoms resembling those of CRS may be provoked in a clinical setting in small numbers of individuals by the administration of large doses of MSG without food. However, such affects are neither persistent nor serious and are likely to be attenuated when MSG is consumed with food. In terms of more serious adverse effects such as the triggering of bronchospasm in asthmatic individuals, the evidence does not indicate that MSG is a significant trigger factor."[Gov. 8]
However, the FSANZ MSG report says that although there is no data available on average MSG consumption in Australia and New Zealand, "data from the United Kingdom indicates an average intake of 590 mg/day, with extreme users (97.5th percentile consumers) consuming 2330 mg/day." (Rhodes et al. 1991) In a highly seasoned restaurant meal, intakes as high as 5000 mg or more may be possible (Yang et al. 1997). When very large doses of MSG (>5g MSG in a WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the 1995 Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB)—concluded, "there may be a small number of unstable asthmatics who respond to doses of 1.5 – 2.5g of MSG in the absence of food." The FASEB evaluation concluded, "sufficient evidence exists to indicate some individuals may experience manifestations of CRS when exposed to a ≥3g bolus dose of MSG in the absence of food."[Gov. 8]
Standard 1.2.4 of the Australia and New Zealand Food Standards Code requires MSG to be labeled in packaged foods. The label must have the food-additive class name (e.g. "flavour enhancer"), followed by the name of the additive ("MSG") or its International Numbering System (INS) number, 621.[Gov. 9]
MSG is one of several forms of glutamic acid found in foods, in large part because glutamic acid (an amino acid) is pervasive in nature. Glutamic acid and its salts may be present in a variety of other additives, including hydrolyzed vegetable protein, autolyzed yeast, hydrolyzed yeast, yeast extract, soy extracts and protein isolate, which must be specifically labeled. Since 1998, MSG cannot be included in the term "spices and flavorings". The ribonucleotide food additives disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate are usually used with monosodium glutamate-containing ingredients. However, the term "natural flavor" is used by the food industry for glutamic acid (chemically similar to MSG, lacking only the sodium ion). The FDA does not require disclosure of components and amounts of "natural flavor."[Gov. 10]
The FDA considers labels such as "no MSG" or "no added MSG" misleading if the food has ingredients which are sources of free glutamate, such as hydrolyzed protein. In 1993, it proposed adding "contains glutamate" to the common names of certain hydrolyzed proteins with substantial amounts of glutamate.
MSG has been produced by three methods: hydrolysis of vegetable proteins with hydrochloric acid to disrupt peptide bonds (1909–1962); direct chemical synthesis with acrylonitrile (1962–1973), and bacterial fermentation (the current method).[Manuf. 9] Wheat gluten was originally used for hydrolysis because it contains more than 30g of glutamate and glutamine in 100g of protein. As demand for MSG increased, chemical synthesis and fermentation were studied. The polyacrylic fiber industry began in Japan during the mid-1950s, and acrylonitrile was adopted as a base material to synthesize MSG.[Manuf. 14]
Most global MSG production is currently by bacterial fermentation in a process similar to making vinegar or yogurt. Sodium is added later, for neutralization. During fermentation, corynebacteria—cultured with ammonia and carbohydrates from sugar beets, sugar cane, tapioca or molasses—excrete amino acids into a culture broth from which L-glutamate is isolated. The Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Company developed industrial fermentation to produce L-glutamate.[Manuf. 15]
The conversion yield and production rate (from sugars to glutamate) continues to improve in the industrial production of MSG, keeping up with demand.[Manuf. 9] The product, after filtration, concentration, acidification and crystallization, is glutamate, sodium and water. A white, odorless, crystalline powder, in solution it dissociates into glutamate and sodium ions.
MSG is freely soluble in water, but it is not ether). It is generally stable under food-processing conditions. MSG does not break down during cooking and, like other amino acids, will exhibit a Maillard reaction (browning) in the presence of sugars at very high temperatures.[Manuf. 10]
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- "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". Food.gov.uk. 2010-11-26. Retrieved 2012-01-30
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- Walker R, Lupien JR, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, UK, and Food and Nutrition Division,
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- "CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Vol 6, Part 501, Subpart B--Specific Animal Food Labeling Requirements". FDA.gov. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
Manufacturers and suppliers
- Ninomiya K, Technical Committee , Umami Manufacturers Association of Japan (1998). "Natural occurrence". Food Reviews International 14 (2 & 3): 177–211.
- Singh, K. K.; Desai, Pinakin, Director. "Glutamate Chemical". TriveniInterChem.com. Riveni InterChem of Triveni Chemicals, manufacturer & supplier of industrial chemicals, India. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- Desmo Exports Limited, Chemical Manfacturers and Importers of India (2011). "Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)". DesmoExports.com. Desmo Exports. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- "Accent Flavor Enhancer". AccentFlavor.com. B&G Foods, Inc. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- "B&G Foods, Incorporated". Grocery.com. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Monosodium glutamate(MSG)". AjiNoMoto.com. Ajin-No-Moto Group Worldwide. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- "Ajinomoto, To Greet the Next 100 Years, Corporate Guide". Ajinomoto.com. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
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- Sano, Chiaki, Technology and Engineering Center, Ajinomoto Co, Japan. (September 2009). "History of glutamate production". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (3): 728S–732S.
- Yamaguchi, Shizuko, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Japan; Ninomiya, Kumiko, Technical Committee, Umami Manufacturers Association of Japan. (1998). "What is umami?". Food Reviews International 14 (2 & 3): 123?138.
- Rolls, Edmund T., Oxford Centre for Computational Neuroscience, United Kingdom, Supported by the Medical Research Council and in part by the International Glutamate Technical Committee, a nongovernmental organization funded by industrial producers and users of glutamate in food. (September 2009). "Functional neuroimaging of umami taste: what makes umami pleasant?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90 (3): 804S–813S.
- Yamaguchi, Shizuko, Central Research Laboratories, Ajinomoto Co., Japan; Takahashi, Chikahito, Central Research Laboratories, Ajinomoto Co., Japan. (January 1984). "Interactions of monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride on saltiness and palatability of a clear soup".
- Ball P, Woodward D, Beard T, Shoobridge A, Ferrier M. Sponsorship: We acknowledge the financial support of the International Glutamate Technical Committee (IGTC), a nongovernmental organization funded by industrial producers and users of glutamate in food. (June 2002). "Calcium diglutamate improves taste characteristics of lower-salt soup". Eur J Clin Nutr 56 (6): 519–23.
- Yoshida T, Ajinomoto Co., Planning and Development Department, Japan. (1970). "Industrial manufacture of optically active glutamic acid through total synthesis". Chem Ing Tech 42 (9–10): 641?644.
- Kinoshita Shukuo, Tokyo Research Laboratory, Kyowa Fermentation Industry Company; Udaka, Shigezo; Shimamoto, Masakazu. (1957). "Studies on amino acid fermentation. Part I. Production of L-glutamic acid by various microorganisms". J Gen Appl Microbiol 3 (3): 193?205.
- Specter, Michael (November 3, 2014). "What’s So Bad About Gluten?". New Yorker magazine. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Ikeda K (November 2002). "New seasonings". Chem Senses 27 (9): 847–849.
- Loliger J (April 2000). "Function and importance of Glutamate for Savory Foods".
- Yamaguchi S (May 1991). "Basic properties of umami and effects on humans".
- Kurihara K (September 2009). "Glutamate: from discovery as a food flavor to role as a basic taste (umami)?".
- Kawamura Y, Kare MR, ed. (1987). Umami: a basic taste. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc.
- Freeman, Matthew, CNP, mph, Clinical Instructor (Adult Nurse Practitioner), Ohio State University. He reviewed 40 years of documents on PubMed, Medline, Lexis-Nexus, and Infotrac, and concluded there is no consistent clinical data to support the belief that MSG can elicit a headache, and there is no consistent evidence to suggest that individuals may be uniquely sensitive to MSG. (2006). "Reconsidering the effects of monosodium glutamate: A literature review". Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 18 (10): 482–6.
- Raiten DJ, Talbot JM, Fisher KD (1996). "Executive Summary from the Report: Analysis of Adverse Reactions to Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) --no summary available, 8/11/2014.". Journal of Nutrition 126 (6): 2891S–2906S.
- Geha RS, Beiser A, Ren C et al. (April 2000). "Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study". J. Nutr. 130 (4S Suppl): 1058S–62S.
- Tarasoff L., Kelly M.F. (1993). "Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review". Food Chem. Toxicol. 31 (12): 1019–35.
- Walker R (October 1999). "The significance of excursions above the ADI. Case study: monosodium glutamate". Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 30 (2 Pt 2): S119–21.
- Willams, A. N., and Woessner, K.M. (2009). "Monosodium glutamate 'allergy': menace or myth?". Clinical & Experimental Allergy 39 (5): 640?646.
- Shi, Z; Luscombe-Marsh, ND; Wittert, GA; Yuan, B; Dai, Y; Pan, X; Taylor, AW (2010). "Monosodium glutamate is not associated with obesity or a greater prevalence of weight gain over 5 years: Findings from the Jiangsu Nutrition Study of Chinese adults". The British journal of nutrition 104 (3): 457–63.
Nicholas bakalar (August 25, 2008). "Nutrition: MSG Use Is Linked to Obesity". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
Consumption of monosodium glutamate, or MSG, the widely used food additive, may increase the likelihood of being overweight, a new study says.
- Stevenson, D. D. (2000). "Monosodium glutamate and asthma". J. Nutr. 130 (4S Suppl): 1067S–73S.
- Nicholas J. Maragakis, MD; Jeffrey D. Rothstein, MD, PhD (2001;58:365-370.). "Glutamate Transporters in Neurologic Disease". Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- Mahoney, John. "The Notorious MSG’s Unlikely Formula For Success".
- Dickerman, Sarah. "Could MSG make a comeback?". Slate magazine.
- Ibanga, Imaeyen. "China food scare: a dash of racism".
- Haber, Barbara. "Life on the Culinary Edge". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Renton, Alex. "If MSG is so bad for you, why doesn't everyone in Asia have a headache?".
- Win. C., ed. (1995). Principles of Biochemistry. Boston, MA: Brown Pub Co.
- Monosodium glutamate: Is it harmful? (Mayo Clinic)
- International Glutamate Information Service (IGIS)
- The Facts on Monosodium Glutamate (EUFIC)
- Could MSG make a comeback? (Slate)
- The Observer - If MSG is so bad for you, why does not everyone in Asia have a headache?