Oj, svijetla majska zoro
Ој, свијетла мајска зоро (Montenegrin Cyrillic)
Oh, Bright Dawn of May
Location of (Green)
in (Dark Grey) – " src="http://images.worldlibrary.net/articles/eng/File:Europe-Montenegro.svg" width="250">
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2011)|
|-||Prime Minister||Milo Đukanović|
|-||President of the Parliament||Ranko Krivokapić|
|-||Duklja was vassal of Byzantine empire in||6th century|
|-||Semi-independent dukedom of Duklja (Doclea)||9th century|
|-||Kingdom of Zeta recognition||1077|
|-||Independent dukedom established||1356|
|-||Independent dukedom reestablished||1441|
|-||Principality founded||1 January 1852|
|-||Recognition by the Ottoman Empire||3 March 1878|
|-||Kingdom proclaimed||28 August 1910|
|-||Creation of Yugoslavia||1 December 1918|
Serbia and Montenegro
3 June 2006
13,812 km2 (161st)
5,332 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|-||Per capita||$7,340 (77th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|-||Per capita||$11,800 (42nd)|
high · 51st
|Currency||Euro (€)b (EUR)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||ME|
|a.||Constitution names Cetinje as the Old Royal Capital (prijestonica) of Montenegro.|
|b.||Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a member of the Eurozone.|
Montenegro ( or ; or ; Montenegrin: Crna Gora / Црна Гора ( ), meaning "Black Mountain") is a country in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, and Albania to the south-east. Its capital and largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Prijestonica, meaning the former Royal Capital City.
In the 9th century, there existed three Slavic principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora (Venetian: monte negro). Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1711. Parts were controlled by Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.
Classified by the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement and a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. Montenegro also is a candidate for joining the European Union and NATO.
- Etymology 1
- Ancient times 2.1
- Middle Ages 2.2
- Ottoman rule and Metropolitanate 2.3
- Principality of Montenegro 2.4
Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918) 2.5
- Unification and Christmas Uprising 2.5.1
Kingdom of Yugoslavia 2.6
- Italian occupation 1941–43 2.6.1
- Montenegro within Socialist Yugoslavia 2.7
- Dissolution of Socialist Yugoslavia and forming of FR Yugoslavia 2.8
- Independence 2.9
- Rehabilitation of the Royal House 2.10
- Biodiversity outlook 3.1.1
- Biodiversity 3.1
- Symbols 4.1
- Military 4.2
- Administrative divisions 4.3
- Cities in Montenegro 4.4
- Infrastructure 5.1
- Tourism 5.2
- Ethnic structure 6.1
- Linguistic structure 6.2
- Religious structure 6.3
- Elementary education 7.1
- Secondary education 7.2
- Tertiary education 7.3
- Post-graduate education 7.4
- Ethical beliefs 8.1
- Sport 8.2
- Cuisine 8.3
- In popular culture 9
- Public holidays 10
- See also 11
- Notes 12
- Sources 13.1
- Further reading 14
- External links 15
Crna Gora, sometimes transliterated as Tsrna Gora ("Black Mountain"), is used to denote a larger part of Montenegro in the 15th century. It had in the late 14th century only referred to a small strip of land of the Paštrovići, but eventually came to be used for a wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family in Upper Zeta.
The aforementioned region became known as Old Montenegro (Стара Црна Гора/Stara Crna Gora) by the 19th century to distinguish it from the newly acquired territory of Brda (The Highlands). Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century as the result of wars against the Ottomans, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Rashka. The nation has changed little since that time, though it lost Metohija and gained the Bay of Kotor.
The country's name in most Western European languages reflects an adaptation of the Italian-Venetian calque monte negro (modern Italian would be monte nero), meaning "black mountain", which probably dates back to the era of Venetian hegemony over the area in the Middle Ages. Other languages, particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term "black mountain".
Pliny, Appian and Ptolemy mentioned the Docleatae as living in the maritime region, holding the town of Doclea (old Podgorica). In 9 AD the Romans conquered the region. Slavs colonized the area in the 6th century, and had by the 10th century formed a semi-independent principality called Duklja in suzerainty to the Byzantine Empire.
Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia and also became recognised as a kingdom. Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death(in 1101 or 1108) several civil wars ensued. As the nobility fought for the throne the kingdom was weakened and by 1186 it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta.
In 1421, Zeta was annexed to the Serbian Despotate but after 1455 another noble family from Zeta, the Crnojevićs, became sovereign rulers of the country, making it the last free monarchy of the Balkans before it fell to the Ottomans in 1496, and got annexed to the sanjak of Shkodër. During the reign of Crnojevićs Zeta became known under its current name – Montenegro. For a short time Montenegro existed as a separate autonomous sanjak in 1514–1528, another version of which existed again between 1597 and 1614.
Ottoman rule and Metropolitanate
In the 16th century Montenegro developed a form of unique autonomy within the Ottoman Empire with Montenegrin clans being free from certain restrictions. Nevertheless the Montenegrins refused to accept Ottoman rule and in the 17th century raised numerous rebellions, culminating with the defeat of the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War at the end of that century.
Montenegro became a theocracy led by the Metropolitans, flourishing since the Petrović-Njegoš became the traditional prince-bishops (whose title was "Vladika of Montenegro"). The Venetian Republic introduced governors that meddled in Montenegrin politics; when the republic was succeeded by the Austrian Empire in 1797, the governors were abolished by Prince-Bishop Petar II in 1832. His predecessor Petar I contributed to the unification of Montenegro with the Highlands.
Principality of Montenegro
Under Nicholas I, the Principality was enlarged several times in the Montenegro-Turkish Wars and was recognised as independent in 1878. Under the rule of Nicholas I, diplomatic relations were established with the Ottoman Empire. Minor border skirmishes excepted, diplomacy ushered in approximately 30 years of peace between the two states until the deposition of Abdul Hamid II.
The political skills of Abdul Hamid and Nicholas I played a major role on the mutually amicable relations. Modernization of the state followed, culminating with the draft of a Constitution in 1905. However, political rifts emerged between the reigning People's Party that supported the process of democratization and union with Serbia and those of the True People's Party who were monarchist.
During this period, one of the major Montenegrin victories over the Ottomans occurred at the Battle of Grahovac. Grand Duke Mirko Petrović, elder brother of Knjaz Danilo, led an army of 7,500 and defeated the numerically superior Ottomans who had 13,000 troops at Grahovac on 1 May 1858. The glory of Montenegrin victory was soon immortalized in the songs and literature of all the South Slavs, in particular the Montenegrins in Vojvodina, then part of Austria-Hungary. This forced the Great Powers to officially demarcate the borders between Montenegro and Ottoman Empire, de facto recognizing Montenegro's independence. Montenegro's independence was recognized by Ottoman Empire at Treaty of Berlin in 1878.
The first Montenegrin constitution was proclaimed in 1855; it was also known as the Danilo Code.
Kingdom of Montenegro (1910–1918)
In 1910 Montenegro became a Kingdom and as a result of the Balkan wars in 1912 and 1913 (in which the Ottomans lost all Balkan land), a common border with Serbia was established, with Shkodër being awarded to a newly created Albania, even though the current capital city of Montenegro, Podgorica was the old border of Albania and Yugoslavia. In World War I in 1914 Montenegro sided with Serbia against the Central Powers, suffering a full-scale defeat to Austria-Hungary in early 1916. In 1918 the Allies liberated Montenegro, which was subsequently merged with Serbia.
Unification and Christmas Uprising
During World War I (1914–1918) Montenegro was allied with the Allied Powers. From 15 January 1916 to October 1918, Montenegro was occupied by Austria-Hungary. During occupation, King Nicholas fled first to Italy and then to France, and the government transferred its operations to Bordeaux. When the Allies liberated Montenegro, the Podgorica Assembly was convened and voted to ban the king from returning and to unite the country with the Kingdom of Serbia on 1 December 1918. In the Christmas Uprising, a large part of the Montenegrin population, known as the Greens, rebelled against this decision to unify with Serbia and, led by captain Krsto Zrnov Popović, fought against the pro-unification forces, Whites.
The royal family was rehabilitated in 2011 by the government, and today is headed by Crown Prince Nicholas II who has his own foundation.
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
In 1922 Montenegro formally became the "Oblast of Cettinje" of the Zeta Area in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, with the addition of the coastal areas around Budva and Bay of Kotor. In a successive restructuring, in 1929 it became a part of a larger Zeta Banate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that reached the Neretva River.
Nicholas's grandson, the Serb King Alexander I dominated the Yugoslav government. Zeta Banovina was one of nine bannovinas which formed the Kingdom and was named after the Serbian Medieval Principality Zeta. It consisted of the present-day Montenegro and parts of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia.
Italian occupation 1941–43
In 1941, political commissars while the insurgent military forces were led by the former Royal Yugoslav Army officers.
Within three weeks from the start of uprising insurgents managed to capture almost the whole territory of Montenegro. Pavle Đurišić emerged as one of the main commanders of the uprising after he distinguished himself during the successful attack he led on Berane. Italian troops were forced to retreat to their strongholds in Nikšić, Cetinje and Podgorica. The Communists took charge of the situation and began with terror against the people they perceived as their class enemies. The bloody rule of communists antagonized many people in Montenegro. The counteroffensive of Italian forces of 67,000 troops, commanded by General Alessandro Pirzio Biroli, was assisted by Muslim and Albanian irregular forces from border areas. Although the uprising was suppressed Italian occupation was effectively reduced to towns while Chetniks remained in control of the rest of the territory of Montenegro according to agreement with Italian General Alessandro Pirzio Biroli who was governor of Montenegro. Partisan forces of around 3,000 soldiers were chased away from Montenegro not to re-enter it for almost a year.
After the spring of 1942, much of the Sandžak region, which was included in the state of Montenegro, was not actually controlled by its government. The area of the Bay of Kotor (the Venetian Cattaro) was annexed to the Italian province of Dalmatia until September 1943. After the departure of the Italians, Montenegro remained under the direct control of German troops, with a terrible and bloody guerrilla war ravaging the area. In December 1944 the German troops withdrew and Josip Broz Tito's Partisans assumed control.
Montenegro within Socialist Yugoslavia
Montenegro, like the rest of the Yugoslavia, was liberated by the Yugoslav Partisans in 1944. The second uprising in Nazi-occupied Europe happened on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro, when Montenegrins stood up against the fascists and joined Communist partisans. Notable Partisans from Montenegro include Arso Jovanović, Sava Kovačević, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo, Milovan Đilas, Peko Dapčević, Vlado Dapčević, Veljko Vlahović, Blažo Jovanović, Jovo Kapičić and Ivan Milutinović. Montenegro became a constituent of the six republics of the communist Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), its capital became Podgorica renamed Titograd in honour of President Josip Broz Tito. After the war, the infrastructure of Yugoslavia was rebuilt, industrialization began and the University of Montenegro was established. Greater autonomy was established until the Socialist Republic of Montenegro ratified a new constitution 1974.
Dissolution of Socialist Yugoslavia and forming of FR Yugoslavia
After the dissolution of the SFRY in 1992, Montenegro remained part of a smaller Federal Republic of Yugoslavia along with Serbia.
In the democratic conditions with widespread propaganda from the state-controlled media in favour of a pro-federation vote. There is no impartial report on the fairness of the referendum, as it was unmonitored, unlike in 2006 when European Union observers were present.
During the 1991–1995 Bosnian War and Croatian War, Montenegrin police and military forces joined Serbian troops in the attacks on Dubrovnik, Croatia. These operations, aimed at acquiring more territory, were characterized by a consistent pattern of large-scale violations of human rights.
Montenegrin General Pavle Strugar was convicted for his part in the bombing of Dubrovnik. Bosnian refugees were arrested by Montenegrin police and transported to Serb camps in Foča, where they were subjected to systematic torture and executed.
In 1996, Milo Đukanović's government severed ties between Montenegro and the Serbian regime, which was then under Slobodan Milošević. Montenegro formed its own economic policy and adopted the German Deutsche Mark as its currency and subsequently adopted the Euro, although not part of the Eurozone currency union. Subsequent governments have pursued pro-independence policies and political tensions with Serbia simmered despite the political changes in Belgrade. Targets in Montenegro were bombed by NATO forces during Operation Allied Force in 1999, although the extent of these attacks was very limited in both time and area affected.
In 2002, Serbia and Montenegro came to a new agreement regarding continued cooperation and entered into negotiations regarding the future status of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In 2003, the Yugoslav federation was replaced in favour of a more decentralized state union named Serbia and Montenegro.
The status of the union between Montenegro and Serbia was decided by the referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate. 230,661 votes (55.5%) were for independence and 185,002 votes (44.5%) were against. The 45,659 difference narrowly surpassed the 55% threshold needed to validate the referendum under the rules set by the European Union. According to the electoral commission, the 55% threshold was passed by only 2,300 votes. Serbia, the member-states of the European Union, and the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council all recognised Montenegro's independence.
The 2006 referendum was monitored by five international observer missions, headed by an ODIHR team, and around 3,000 observers in total (including domestic observers from CDT (OSCE PA), the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE), the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe (CLRAE) and the European Parliament (EP) to form an International Referendum Observation Mission (IROM). The IROM—in its preliminary report—"assessed compliance of the referendum process with OSCE commitments, Council of Europe commitments, other international standards for democratic electoral processes, and domestic legislation." Furthermore, the report assessed that the competitive pre-referendum environment was marked by an active and generally peaceful campaign and that "there were no reports of restrictions on fundamental civil and political rights."
On 3 June 2006, the Montenegrin Parliament declared the independence of Montenegro, formally confirming the result of the referendum. Serbia did not object to the declaration.
Rehabilitation of the Royal House
On 12 July 2011 the Parliament of Montenegro passed the Law on the Status of the Descendants of the Petrović Njegoš Dynasty that rehabilitated the Royal House of Montenegro and – in effect – enabled a limited parliamentary monarchy to exist (succeeding from the former absolute monarchy that existed until 1918). The law “governs the important issues regarding the status of the descendants of the Petrović Njegoš dynasty [for the historical and moral rehabilitation of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty], whose dethroning was contrary to the Constitution of the Principality of Montenegro, a violent act of annexation in the year 1918.” (Article 1).
Montenegro ranges from high peaks along its borders with Serbia and Albania, a segment of the Karst of the western Balkan Peninsula, to a narrow coastal plain that is only one to four miles (6.4 km) wide. The plain stops abruptly in the north, where Mount Lovćen and Mount Orjen plunge into the inlet of the Bay of Kotor.
Montenegro's large Karst region lies generally at elevations of 1,000 metres (3,280 ft) above sea level; some parts, however, rise to 2,000 m (6,560 ft), such as Mount Orjen (1,894 m or 6,214 ft), the highest massif among the coastal limestone ranges. The Zeta River valley, at an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft), is the lowest segment.
The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrain in Europe, averaging more than 2,000 metres in elevation. One of the country's notable peaks is Bobotov Kuk in the Durmitor mountains, which reaches a height of 2,522 metres (8,274 ft). Owing to the hyperhumid climate on their western sides, the Montenegrin mountain ranges were among the most ice-eroded parts of the Balkan Peninsula during the last glacial period.
- Longest beach: Velika Plaža, Ulcinj — 13,000 m (8.1 mi)
- Highest peak: Zla Kolata, Prokletije at 2,534 m (8,314 ft)
- Largest lake: Skadar Lake — 391 km2 (151 sq mi) of surface area
- Deepest canyon: Tara River Canyon — 1,300 m (4,300 ft)
- Biggest bay: Bay of Kotor
- National parks: Durmitor — 390 km2 (150 sq mi), Lovćen — 64 km2 (25 sq mi), Biogradska Gora — 54 km2 (21 sq mi), Skadar Lake — 400 km2 (154 sq mi) and Prokletije.
- UNESCO World Heritage sites: Durmitor and Tara River Canyon, old city of Kotor.
Montenegro is a member of the International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River (ICPDR), as more than 2,000 square kilometres (772 sq mi) of the country's territory lie within the Danube catchment area.
Diversity of geological base, landscape, climate and soil, as well as the very position of Montenegro on the Balkan peninsula and Adriatic sea, created conditions for formation of biological diversity with very high values, that puts Montenegro among biological "hot-spots" of European and world’s biodiversity. Number of species per area unit Index in Montenegro is 0.837, which is the highest index recorded in all European countries.
- Freshwater algae of Montenegro – so far 1,200 species and varieties have been described
- Vascular flora of Montenegro has 3,250 species. Number of endemics is also high – there are 392 Balkan (regional) endemic species, equivalent to over 7% of Montenegrin flora.
- Lake Skadar is among the most important areas that are inhabited by the freshwater fish, where 40 species of fish, including species that migrate from marine to freshwater ecosystem, like eel (Anguilla Anguilla), shad (Alossa falax nilotica), etc.
- It is considered that the diversity of marine fish fauna of the Adriatic sea comprise 117 registered families but with low level of endemism. To date, 40,742 marine fish species have been registered in Montenegro which represents 70% of species registered in Mediterranean.
- There are currently 56 species (18 amphibian and 38 reptile) and 69 subspecies recorded within 38 genera and the list is probably incomplete. Mountain regions of Lovćen and Prokletije stand out as particularly hot spots for amphibians and reptiles in Montenegro.
- Out of 526 European bird species 333 are assumed to be regularly present in Montenegro. Out of them, 204 species are nesting in the country.
The Constitution of Montenegro describes the state as a "civic, democratic, ecological state of social justice, based on the reign of Law." Montenegro is an independent and sovereign republic that proclaimed its new constitution on 22 October 2007.
The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore) is the head of state, elected for a period of five years through direct elections. The President represents the republic abroad, promulgates laws by ordinance, calls elections for the Parliament, proposes candidates for Prime Minister, president and justices of the Constitutional Court to the Parliament. The President also proposes the calling of a referendum to Parliament, grants amnesty for criminal offences prescribed by the national law, confers decoration and awards and performs other constitutional duties and is a member of the Supreme Defence Council. The official residence of the President is in Cetinje.
The Government of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Vlada Crne Gore) is the executive branch of government authority of Montenegro. The government is headed by the Prime Minister, and consists of the deputy prime ministers as well as ministers.
The Parliament of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Skupština Crne Gore) is a unicameral legislative body. It passes laws, ratifies treaties, appoints the Prime Minister, ministers, and justices of all courts, adopts the budget and performs other duties as established by the Constitution. Parliament can pass a vote of no-confidence on the Government by a simple majority. One representative is elected per 6,000 voters. The present parliament contains 81 seats, with a 39-seats currently held by the Coalition for a European Montenegro as a result of the 2012 parliamentary election.
An official flag of Montenegro, based on the royal standard of King Nikola I was adopted on 12 July 2004 by the Montenegrin legislature. This royal flag was red with a silver border, a silver coat of arms, and the initials НІ in Cyrillic script (corresponding to NI in Latin script) representing King Nikola I. On the current flag, the border and arms are in gold and the royal cipher in the centre of the arms was replaced with a golden lion.
The national day of 13 July marks the date in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world and the start of one of the first popular uprisings in Europe against the Axis Powers on 13 July 1941 in Montenegro.
In 2004, the Montenegrin legislature selected a popular Montenegrin traditional song, Oh, Bright Dawn of May, as the national anthem. Montenegro's official anthem during the reign of King Nikola was Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori (To our beautiful Montenegro).
The Military of Montenegro is composed of an
|Croatia||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Serbia|
-  - Serb Land of Montenegro]
- Official website
- Interactive PhotoGallery from Montenegro – 2000 photos
- Montenegro Attractions
- Montenegro entry at The World Factbook
- Montenegro from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Montenegro at DMOZ
- Montenegro profile from the BBC News
- Geographic data related to Montenegro at OpenStreetMap
- Key Development Forecasts for Montenegro from International Futures
- Montenegro at funiq.eu
- Banac, Ivo. The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics Cornell University Press, (1984) ISBN 0-8014-9493-1
- Fleming, Thomas. Montenegro: The Divided Land (2002) ISBN 0-9619364-9-5
- Longley, Norm. The Rough Guide to Montenegro (2009) ISBN 978-1-85828-771-3
- Morrison, Kenneth. Montenegro: A Modern History (2009) ISBN 978-1-84511-710-8
- Roberts, Elizabeth. Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro (Cornell University Press, 2007) 521pp ISBN 978-1-85065-868-9
- Stevenson, Francis Seymour. A History of Montenegro 2002) ISBN 978-1-4212-5089-2
- II. Abdulhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri [Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era] by Uğur Özcan (2013) Türk Tarih Kurumu Turkish Historical Society ISBN 978-975-16-2527-4
- Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991), The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, University of Michigan Press,
- John V.A. Fine. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4
- "Language and alphabet Article 13". Constitution of Montenegro.
- "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011". Monstat. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "Montenegro". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Basic data of Montenegro
- "Duklja, the first Montenegrin state". Montenegro.org. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Crna Gora od danas kandidat
- "Crna Gora u predvorju NATO-a". Pcnen.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Fine 1994, p. 532
- ISO 3166-1 Newsletter No. V-12, Date: 26 September 2006
- Uğur Özcan, II. Abdülhamid Dönemi Osmanlı-Karadağ Siyasi İlişkileri(Political relations between the Ottoman Empire and Montenegro in the Abdul Hamid II era)Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara 2013. ISBN 9789751625274
- Pavlowitch 2007, pp. 75–76.
- "Prema oceni istoričara, Trinaestojulski ustanak bio je prvi i najmasovniji oružani otpor u porobljenoj Evropi 1941. godine". B92.net. Retrieved 2012-12-07. The first was the "February strike" in the Netherlands earlier in the year.
- "Bombing of Dubrovnik". Croatiatraveller.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "A/RES/47/121. The situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina". Un.org. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Porodica Nedžiba Loje o Njegovom Hapšenju i Deportaciji 1992". Godine Bosnjaci.net
- "Russia pushes peace plan". BBC. 29 April 1999.
- "Montenegro vote result confirmed". BBC News. 23 May 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Montenegro declares independence". BBC News. 4 June 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Environment Reporter 2010. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro. 2011. p. 22.
- Environment Reporter 2010. Environmental Protection Agency of Montenegro. 2011. pp. 22–23.
- "Ustav Crne Gore" (PDF). Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "President Vujanovic’s Closing Speech at the Crans Montana Forum". Predsjednik.me. 21 February 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Cilj Crne Gore članstvo u NATO". Pobjeda.me. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Spremaju se za Avganistan". Vijesti.me. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Zakon o izmjenama i dopunama Zakona o teritorijalnoj organizaciji Crne Gore" [Ammendments to the Territorial Organization of Montenegro Law]. Službeni List Crne Gore 2014 (12). 7 March 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- "Zakon o izmjeni i dopuni Zakona o teritorijalnoj organizaciji Crne Gore" [Ammendment to the Territorial Organization of Montenegro Law]. Službeni List Crne Gore 2013 (27). 11 June 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- "5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". April 2011.
- "GDP per capita in PPS". Eurostat. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- FDI falls across West Balkans, except Montenegro. Reuters India 10 December 2009. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- Montenegro's leader sees slow economic recovery
- "Montenegro at a glance".
- Milena Milosevic. "EU Farming Standards Pose Test For Montenegro". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "50 Places of a Lifetime". Blogs.nationalgeographic.com. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "The 31 Places to Go in 2010". New York Times. 2010-01-07. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009 by Yahoo Travel". Travel.yahoo.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Leue, Holger. "Where to go in June". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "America Sending their Best Adventure Racers to Montenegro". Adventureworldmagazineonline.com. 4 June 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Crnoj Gori 2011. godine" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Serbo-Croatian and English). Statistical office, Montenegro. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
- "Montenegrin Census' from 1909 to 2003". Njegos.org. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
-  Vijesti: The majority of youth below 18 years of age speaks the Montenegrin language (26/07/2011)
-  Matica crnogorska: Third deep research of public opinion regarding the identity attitudes of the citizens of Montenegro (2013)
- Rifat Fejzic, the reis (president) of the Islamic community in Montenegro Today's Zaman
- Aleksandar Šestović. "Kotor". Kotoronline.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Milan Nikolic. "History of Montenegro: Crnojevic Rule". Montenet. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Чојство и јунаштво старих Црногораца, Цетиње 1968. 3–11". Web.f.bg.ac.rs. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Oblikovanje crnogorske nacije u doba petrovica njegosa, "Cojstvo je osobeno svojstvo Crnogoraca, koje su uzdigli u najvecu vrlinu i uzor."
- Montenegro take a bow at victory
- "Budućnost uz velikane". Fkbuducnost.co.me. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Podignuta crnogorska zastava u olimpijskom selu". Cokcg.org. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "EuroBasket History — The 21st Century". Eurobasket2009.org. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Radio-televizija Vojvodine, www.rtv.rs. "Crna Gora šampion Evrope". Rtv.rs. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Montenegro Wins World League
- "Warsaw (MissWorld-2006-Warsaw)". Sfmission.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- Sonypictures.com, James Bond Casino Royal official web site, "About"
- McAleer, John, Rex Stout: A Biography, 1977, Little, Brown and Company; ISBN 0-316-55340-9 pp. 403, 556, 566
- , eBooks: the Great Gatsby, "Text"
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. Kosovo's independence has been recognised by 108 out of 193 United Nations member states.
- Outline of Montenegro
- History of the Balkans
- Languages of Montenegro
- Law enforcement in Montenegro
- List of rulers of Montenegro
- Music of Montenegro
- Savez Izviđača Crne Gore
- Telecommunications in Montenegro
|1 January||New Year's Day||(non-working holiday)|
|7 January||Orthodox Christmas||(non-working)|
|18 April||Orthodox Good Friday||Date for 2014 only|
|20 April||Orthodox Easter||Date for 2014 only|
|1 May||Labor Day||(non-working)|
|9 May||Victory Day|
|21 May||Independence Day||(non-working)|
|13 July||Statehood Day||(non-working)|
This location is featured in The Brothers Bloom, where Bloom moves to escape his brother in the beginning, and in the end, where he ends up living.
The setting for Franz Lehár's 1905 operetta The Merry Widow is the Paris embassy of the Grand Duchy of Pontevedro. Pontevedro is a fictionalized version of Montenegro and several of the characters were loosely based on actual Montenegrin nobility.
The first modern official international representation of Montenegro as an independent state was in Miss World 2006, held on 30 September 2006 in Warsaw, Poland. Ivana Knežević from the city of Bar was the first Miss Montenegro at any international beauty pageant. Both Montenegro and Serbia competed separately in this pageant for the first time after the state union came to an end.
In popular culture
Montenegrin cuisine is a result of Montenegro's long history. It is a variation of Mediterranean and Oriental. The most influence is from Italy, Turkey, Byzantine Empire/Greece, and as well from Hungary. Montenegrin cuisine also varies geographically; the cuisine in the coastal area differs from the one in the northern highland region. The coastal area is traditionally a representative of Mediterranean cuisine, with seafood being a common dish, while the northern represents more the Oriental.
At the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Montenegro women's handball team won the Silver medal losing to defending World, Olympic and European Champions, Norway in an exciting match 26 -23. This is also Montenegro's first ever Olympic medal.
Water polo is often considered the national sport. Montenegro won the European Championships in Málaga, Spain on 13 July 2008, over Serbia 6-5 in a game that was tied 5–5 after four quarters. This was Montenegro's first major international competition for which they had to qualify through two LEN tournaments. Montenegro won the gold medal at the 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League, which was held in Podgorica. Montenegrin team PVK Primorac from Kotor became a champion of Europe at the LEN Euroleague 2009 in Rijeka, Croatia. Montenegro’s first division in water polo consists of six clubs, four of them with an annual budget of one million Euros and more — VK Primorac Kotor (2007 and 2008 Montenegro champions), VK Jadran Herceg Novi (2006 champions of Serbia-Montenegro), VK Budvanska Rivijera Budva, and VK Cattaro. Montenegro's water polo Olympic team finished fourth overall at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.
Previously, people from Montenegro competed in Yugoslavian national teams, as Montenegro was part of Yugoslavia. On 24 March 2007, the Montenegro national football team came from behind to win its first ever fixture, 2-1 in a friendly game against Hungary, at the Podgorica Stadium. The main football club in Montenegro is FK Budućnost Podgorica from capital Podgorica and FK Sutjeska from Nikšić. At their 119th Session in Guatemala City in July 2007, the International Olympic Committee granted recognition and membership to the newly formed Montenegrin National Olympic Committee. Montenegro made its debut at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Montenegro hosted together with Serbia the EuroBasket 2005 championships.
The most popular sports in Montenegro are football, basketball, water polo, volleyball, and handball. Other relatively important sports include boxing, judo, karate, athletics, table tennis, and chess.
A very important dimension of Montenegrin culture is the ethical ideal of Čojstvo i Junaštvo, "Humaneness and Gallantry".
Montenegro's capital Podgorica and the former royal capital of Cetinje are the two most important centres of culture and the arts in the country.
The first literary works written in the region are ten centuries old, and the first Montenegrin book was printed five hundred years ago. The first state-owned printing press was located in Cetinje in 1494, where the first South Slavic book, Oktoih, was printed the same year. Ancient manuscripts, dating from the thirteenth century, are kept in the Montenegrin monasteries.
The traditional folk dance of the Montenegrins is the Oro, a circle dance that involves dancers standing on each other's shoulders in a circle while one or two dancers are dancing in the middle.
Montenegro has many significant cultural and historical sites, including heritage sites from the pre-Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque periods. The Montenegrin coastal region is especially well known for its religious monuments, including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon in Kotor (Cattaro under the Venetians), the basilica of St. Luke (over 800 years), Our Lady of the Rocks (Škrpjela), the Savina Monastery and others. Montenegro's medieval monasteries contain thousands of square metres of frescos on their walls.
The culture of Montenegro has been shaped by a variety of influences throughout history. The influence of Orthodox, Slavonic, Central European, Islamic, and seafaring Adriatic cultures (notably parts of Italy, like the Republic of Venice) have been the most important in recent centuries.
Post-graduate education (post-diplomske studije) is offered after tertiary level and offers Masters' degrees, PhD and specialization education.
Higher schools (Viša škola) lasts between two and four years.
- Colleges (Fakultet) and art academies (akademija umjetnosti) last between 4 and 6 years (one year is two semesters long) and award diplomas equivalent to a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science degree.
Tertiary level institutions are divided into "Higher education" (Više obrazovanje) and "High education" (Visoko obrazovanje) level faculties.
- Gymnasium (Gimnazija / Гимназиjа), lasts for four years and offers a general, broad education. It is a preparatory school for university, and hence the most academic and prestigious.
- Professional schools (Stručna škola / Стручна школа) last for three or four years and specialize students in certain fields which may result in them attending college; professional schools offer a relatively broad education.
- Vocational schools (Zanatska škola / Занатска школа) last for three years and focus on vocational education (e.g., joinery, plumbing, mechanics) without an option of continuing education after three years.
Secondary schools are divided in three types, and children attend one depending on choice and primary school grades:
Elementary education in Montenegro is free and compulsory for all the children between the ages of 6 and 14.
Education starts in either pre-schools or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools (Montenegrin: Osnovna škola) at the age of 6; it lasts 9 years. The students may continue their secondary education (Montenegrin: Srednja škola), which lasts 4 years (3 years for trade schools) and ends with graduation (Matura). Higher education lasts with a certain first degree after 3 to 6 years. There is one public University (University of Montenegro) and two private (University "Mediterranean" and University of Donja Gorica).
Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science.
- Note: In the 2011 census, there are two separate columns for the adherents of Islam, one is called Islam, the other Muslims.
Religious institutions from Montenegro all have guaranteed rights and are separate from the state. The only non-Christian religion that forms a majority in certain regions is Islam, which amounts to 19% of the total population of the country. Albanians are Sunni Muslims, and in 2012 a protocol passed that recognises Islam as an official religion in Montenegro, ensures that halal foods will be served at military facilities, hospitals, dormitories and all social facilities; and that Muslim women will be permitted to wear headscarves in schools and at public institutions, as well as ensuring that Muslims have the right to take Fridays off work for the Jumu'ah (Friday)-prayer. There is also a small Roman Catholic population, mostly Albanians with some Croats, divided between the Archdiocese of Antivari headed by the Primate of Serbia and the Diocese of Kotor that is a part of the Church of Croatia. Religious determination according to the 2011 census:A majority of
Montenegrins have been, historically, members of the Serbian Orthodox Church (governed by the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral), and Serbian Orthodox Christianity is the most popular religion today in Montenegro. The Montenegrin Orthodox Church has been founded in recent years and is followed by a small minority although it is not in communion with any other Christian Orthodox Church as it has not been recognized.
According the 2011 Census following languages are spoken in the country:
The official language in Montenegro is Montenegrin. Also, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are recognized in usage. All of these languages, except Albanian, are mutually intelligible. According to the 2011 census, most citizens declared Serbian language as their mother tongue. Montenegrin language is the majority mother tongue of the population under 18 years of age, although by a very narrow margin- 39.2% comparing to 37.5% of Serbophone citizens. In 2013, Matica crnogorska announced the results of public opinion research regarding the identity attitudes of the citizens of Montenegro, indicating that the majority of the population claims Montenegrin as their mother tongue. Previous constitutions endorsed Serbo-Croatian as the official language in SR Montenegro and the Serbian language of Ijekavian Standard during the 1992–2006 period.
Ethnic composition according to the 2011 official data:
When the 2003 census was taken Montenegro was a non-national civic state. In the meantime, the Constitution was changed, hence it now recognizes the major ethnic groups: Montenegrins (Crnogorci), Serbs (Srbi), Bosniaks (Bošnjaci), Albanians (Albanci – Shqiptarët) and Croats (Hrvati). Thus, the number of "Montenegrins" and "Serbs" fluctuates wildly from census to census due to changes in how people experience, or choose to express, their identity.
According to the 2003 census, Montenegro has 620,145 citizens. If the methodology used up to 1991 had been adopted in the 2003 census, Montenegro would officially have recorded 673,094 citizens. The results of the 2011 census show that Montenegro has 620,029 citizens.
It was not until the 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of visits and overnight stays. The Government of Montenegro has set the development of Montenegro as an elite tourist destination a top priority. It is a national strategy to make tourism a major contributor to the Montenegrin economy. A number of steps were taken to attract foreign investors. Some large projects are already under way, such as Porto Montenegro, while other locations, like Jaz Beach, Buljarica, Velika Plaža and Ada Bojana, have perhaps the greatest potential to attract future investments and become premium tourist spots on the Adriatic.
The Montenegrin Adriatic coast is 295 km (183 mi) long, with 72 km (45 mi) of beaches, and with many well-preserved ancient old towns. National Geographic Traveler (edited once in decade) features Montenegro among the "50 Places of a Lifetime", and Montenegrin seaside Sveti Stefan was used as the cover for the magazine. The coast region of Montenegro is considered one of the great new "discoveries" among world tourists. In January 2010, The New York Times ranked the Ulcinj South Coast region of Montenegro, including Velika Plaza, Ada Bojana, and the Hotel Mediteran of Ulcinj, as among the "Top 31 Places to Go in 2010" as part of a worldwide ranking of tourism destinations. Montenegro was also listed in "10 Top Hot Spots of 2009" to visit by Yahoo Travel, describing it as "Currently ranked as the second fastest growing tourism market in the world (falling just behind China)". It is listed every year by prestigious tourism guides like Lonely Planet as top touristic destination along with Greece, Spain and other world touristic places.
Montenegro has both a picturesque coast and a mountainous northern region. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s. Yet, the Yugoslav wars that were fought in neighbouring countries during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Montenegro for years.
The Port of Bar is Montenegro's main seaport. Initially built in 1906, the port was almost completely destroyed during World War II, with reconstruction beginning in 1950. Today, it is equipped to handle over 5 million tons of cargo annually, though the breakup of the former Yugoslavia and the size of the Montenegrin industrial sector has resulted in the port operating at a loss and well below capacity for several years. The reconstruction of the Belgrade-Bar railway and the proposed Belgrade-Bar motorway are expected to bring the port back up to capacity.
The Montenegrin road infrastructure is not yet at Western European standards. Despite an extensive road network, no roads are built to full motorway standards. Construction of new motorways is considered a national priority, as they are important for uniform regional economic development and the development of Montenegro as an attractive tourist destination.
Aluminum and steel production and agricultural processing make up for most of the industrial output. Tourism is an important contributor to the Montenegrin economy. Approximately one million tourists visited Montenegro in 2007, resulting in €480 million of tourism revenue. Tourism is considered the backbone of future economic growth, and government expenditures on infrastructure improvements are largely targeted towards that goal.
In 2007, the service sector made up for 72.4% of GDP, with industry and agriculture making up the rest at 17.6% and 10%, respectively. There are 50,000 farming households in Montenegro that rely on agriculture to fill the family budget.
GDP grew at an impressive 10.7% in 2007 and 7.5% in 2008. The country entered a recession in 2008 as a part of the global recession, with GDP contracting by 4%. However, Montenegro remained a target for foreign investment, the only country in the Balkans to increase its amount of direct foreign investment. The country is expected to exit the recession in mid-2010, with GDP growth predicted at around 0.5%. However, the significant dependence of the Montenegrin economy on foreign direct investment leaves it susceptible to external shocks and a high export/import trade deficit.
The economy of Montenegro is mostly service-based and is in late transition to a market economy. According to the International Monetary Fund, the nominal GDP of Montenegro was $4.114 billion in 2009. The GDP PPP for 2009 was $6.590 billion, or $10,527 per capita. According to Eurostat data, the Montenegrin GDP per capita stood at 41% of the EU average in 2010. The Central Bank of Montenegro is not part of the euro system but the country is "dollarized", using the euro unilaterally as its currency.
|Some of the biggest cities and towns in Montenegro are:|
Cities in Montenegro
Montenegro is divided into twenty-three municipalities (opština), and two urban municipalities, subdivisions of Podgorica municipality, listed below. Each municipality can contain multiple cities and towns. Historically, the territory of the country was divided into "nahije".
.International Security Assistance Force Future plans for the army are to participate in peacekeeping missions through various UN and NATO efforts such as the