Names of God in the Qur'an

Names of God in the Qur'an

The 99 names of God or 99 names of Allah (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنىʾasmāʾ allāh al-ḥusnā), are the Names of God by which Muslims regard God (Allah) and which are described in the Qur'an, and Sunnah, amongst other places.[1] There is, according to hadith, a special group of 99 names but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the Names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed 99 in the Qur'an and Sunnah. According to a hadith narrated by Abdullah ibn Mas'ud some of the names of God have been hidden from mankind,[2] therefore there are not only 99 names of God but there are more.

Origin

According to Islamic tradition,[3] Muhammad is said to have invoked Allah by a number of Names. According to a Sunni hadith, Sahih Muslim:

Abu Hurairah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There are ninety-nine names of Allah; he who commits them to memory would get into Paradise. Verily, Allah is Odd (He is one, and it is an odd number) and He loves odd numbers. And in the narration of Ibn 'Umar (the words are): "He who enumerated them."
Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj NishapuriSahih Muslim[4]

Over time it became custom to recite a list of 99 Names, compiled by al-Walid ibn Muslim as an addendum to the hadith.

Mahmoud Abdel-Razek (2005) compiled an alternative list, endorsing only 69 from the list of al-Walid.[5]

The Qur'an refers to the Names of God as God's "most beautiful Names" (Arabic: al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusnā) (see the following 59:24). According to Gerhard Böwering,

They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest Name (al-ism al-ʾaʿẓam), the Supreme Name of God, Allāh. The 59:22-24, which includes a cluster of more than a dozen Divine epithets.

List of names and attributes of God as found in the Qur'an

F# Arabic Transliteration Translation (can vary based on context) Qur'anic usage
1 الله ِAllah Name of God []
1 الرحمن Ar-Raḥmān The Exceedingly Compassionate, The Exceedingly Beneficent, The Exceedingly Gracious Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places. Frequently used in Surah 55, Ar-Rahman [57 times in Surah]
2 الرحيم Ar-Raḥīm The Exceedingly Merciful Beginning of every Surah (chapter) except one, and numerous other places [114 times in surah]
3 الملك Al-Malik The King, The Sovereign 23:116
4 القدوس Al-Quddūs The Holy, The Divine, The Pure, The Purifier 62:1
5 السلام As-Salām The Peace, The Source of Peace and Safety 59:23
6 المؤمن Al-Muʾmin The Guarantor, The Affirming 59:23
7 المهيمن Al-Muhaymin The Guardian 59:23
8 العزيز Al-ʿAzīz The Almighty, The Invulnerable, The Honorable 59:23
9 الجبار Al-Jabbār The Irresistible, The Compeller 59:23
10 المتكبر Al-Mutakabbir The Majestic, The Supreme 59:23
11 الخالق Al-Khāliq The Creator 59:24
12 البارئ Al-Bāriʾ The Evolver, The Developer 59:24
13 المصور Al-Muṣawwir The Fashioner, The Shaper, The Designer 59:24
14 الغفار Al-Ġaffār The Repeatedly Forgiving 71:10
15 القهار Al-Qahhār The Subduer 40:16
16 الوهاب Al-Wahhāb The Bestower 38:35
17 الرزاق Ar-Razzāq The Provider 51:58
18 الفتاح Al-Fattāḥ The Opener, The Victory Giver 34:26
19 العليم Al-ʿAlīm The All-Knowing, Omniscient 33:40
20 القابض Al-Qābiḍ The Restrainer, The Straightener 2:245
21 الباسط Al-Bāsiṭ The Extender / Expander 2:245
22 الخَافِض Al-Khāfiḍ The Abaser, The Humiliator 56:3
23 الرافع Ar-Rāfiʿ The Exalter 6:83
24 المعز Al-Muʿizz The Giver of Honor 3:26
25 المذل Al-Muzill The Giver of Dishonor 3:26
26 السميع As-Samīʿ The All Hearing 49:1
27 البصير Al-Baṣīr The All Seeing 42:27
28 الحكم Al-Ḥakam The Judge, The Arbitrator 22:69
29 العدل Al-ʿAdl The Utterly Just 6:115
30 اللطيف Al-Laṭīf The Gentle, The Subtly Kind 33:34
31 الخبير Al-Khabīr The All Aware 59:18
32 الحليم Al-Ḥalīm The Forbearing, The Indulgent 35:41
33 العظيم Al-ʿAẓīm The Magnificent 56:96
34 الغفور Al-Ġafūr The Much-Forgiving 41:32
35 الشكور Aš-Šakūr The Grateful 64:17
36 العلي Al-ʿAlīy The Sublime 42:51
37 الكبير Al-Kabīr The Great 31:30
38 الحفيظ Al-Ḥafīẓ The Preserver 42:6
39 المقيت Al-Muqīt The Nourisher 4:85
40 الحسيب Al-Ḥasīb The Bringer of Judgment 33:39
41 الجليل Al-Ğalīl The Majestic 7:143
42 الكريم Al-Karīm The Bountiful, The Generous 82:6
43 الرقيب Ar-Raqīb The Watchful 5:117
44 المجيب Al-Muğīb The Responsive, The Answerer 11:61
45 الواسع Al-Wāsiʿ The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Omnipresent, The Boundless 5:54
46 الحكيم Al-Ḥakīm The All-Wise 66:2
47 الودود Al-Wadūd The Loving 85:14
48 المجيد Al-Mağīd All-Glorious, The Majestic 11:73
49 الباعث Al-Bāʿiṯ The Resurrecter 22:7
50 الشهيد Aš-Šahīd The Witness 48:28
51 الحق Al-Ḥaqq The Truth, The Reality 24:25
52 الوكيل Al-Wakīl The Trustee, The Dependable, The Advocate 73:9
53 القوي Al-Qawwī The Strong 57:25
54 المتين Al-Matīn The Firm, The Steadfast 51:58
55 الولي Al-Walī The Friend, Patron and Helper 45:19
56 الحميد Al-Ḥamīd The All Praiseworthy 41:42
57 المحصي Al-Muḥṣī The Accounter, The Numberer of All 82:10-12
58 المبدئ Al-Mubdiʾ The Originator, The Producer, The Initiator 85:13
59 المعيد Al-Muʿīd The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All 85:13
60 المحيي Al-Muḥyī The Giver of Life 57:2
61 المميت Al-Mumīt The Bringer of Death 57:2
62 الحي Al-Ḥayy The Living 40:65
63 القيوم Al-Qayyūm The Subsisting, The Guardian 20:111
64 الواجد Al-Wāğid The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing 38:44
65 الماجد Al-Māğid The Illustrious, The Magnificent 11:73,
66 الواحد Al-Wāḥid The One, The Unique 18:110
67 الاحد Al-ʾAḥad The Unity, The Indivisible 112:1
68 الصمد Aṣ-Ṣamad The Eternal, The Absolute, The Self-Sufficient 112:2
69 القادر Al-Qādir The All-Powerful, He Who is able to do Everything 75:40
70 المقتدر Al-Muqtadir The Determiner, The Dominant 54:55
71 المقدم Al-Muqaddim The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward 17:34,
72 المؤخر Al-Muʾakhkhir The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away 71:4
73 الأول Al-ʾAwwal The First, The Beginning-less 57:3
74 الأخر Al-ʾAkḫir The Last, The Endless 57:3
75 الظاهر Aẓ-Ẓāhir The Manifest, The Evident, The Outer 57:3
76 الباطن Al-Bāṭin The Hidden, The Unmanifest, The Inner 57:3
77 الوالي Al-Wālī The Patron, The Protecting Friend, The Friendly Lord 22:7
78 المتعالي Al-Mutaʿālī The Supremely Exalted, The Most High 13:9
79 البر Al-Barr The Good, The Beneficent 52:28
80 التواب At-Tawwāb The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting 110:3
81 المنتقم Al-Muntaqim The Avenger 44:16
82 العفو Al-ʿAfū The Pardoner, The Effacer, The Forgiver 22:60
83 الرؤوف Ar-Raʾūf The Kind, The Pitying 59:10
84 مالك الملك Mālik-ul-Mulk The Owner of all Sovereignty 3:26
85 ذو الجلال والإكرام Dhū-l-Ğalāli
wa-l-ʾikrām
The Lord of Majesty and Generosity 55:78
86 المقسط Al-Muqsiṭ The Equitable, The Requiter 3:18
87 الجامع Al-Ğāmiʿ The Gatherer, The Unifier 3:9
88 الغني Al-Ġanī The Rich, The Independent 57:24
89 المغني Al-Muġnī The Enricher, The Emancipator 9:28
90 المانع Al-Māniʿ The Withholder, The Shielder, The Defender 67:21
91 الضار Aḍ-Ḍārr The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor 6:17
92 النافع An-Nāfiʿ The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Source of Good 30:37
93 النور An-Nūr The Light 24:35
94 الهادي Al-Hādī The Guide, The Way 22:54
95 البديع Al-Badīʿ The Incomparable, The Unattainable 6:101
96 الباقي Al-Bāqī The Immutable, The Infinite, The Everlasting 55:27
97 الوارث Al-Wāriṯ The Heir, The Inheritor of All 57:10
98 الرشيد Ar-Rašīd The Guide to the Right Path 72:10
99 الصبور Aṣ-Ṣabūr The Timeless, The Patient 103:3

The greatest name

The 99 names point to the inherent unity of the all-embracing Greatest Name (Ismi Azam).[7] In Islamic traditions, it is stated "The Greatest Name of Allah is the one which if He [Allah] is called (prayed to) by it, He will Answer."[8]

Personal names

According to Islamic tradition,[9] a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of Allah in exactly the same form. For example, nobody may be named al-Malik (The King), but may be named Malik (King). This is because of the belief that Allah is almighty, and no human being is the equivalent of Allah, and no human being will ever be the equivalent of Allah. Muslims are allowed to use the 99 names of Allah for themselves but should not put 'Al' at the front of them.[10]

However the names of Allah can be combined with the word "‘Abd-" which means "servant/Worshiper" (of Allah) and are commonly used as personal names among Muslims. For example ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ("Servant of the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent"). The two parts of the name may be written separately (as above) or combined as one transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ‘Abd is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdurrahman, Abdul'aziz, "Abdul Jabbar", or even Abdullah ("Servant of Allah"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ‘abd-u.)

Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include:

Views of other religions

Bábí and Bahá'í view

Bahá'í sources state that the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (an Arabic word بهاء meaning "glory, splendor" etc.), which is the root word for Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. They also believe that it is the 'Greatest Name'.[11][12] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[11]

According to Bahá'í scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Baha' ad-Din al-`Amili adopted the pen name (takhallus) 'Baha' after being inspired by words of Shi'a Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (the fifth Imam) and Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (the sixth Imam), who had stated that the Greatest Name of God was included in either Du'ay-i-Sahar or A`amaal Ummi Dawud.[11] In the first verse of the Du'ay-i-Sahar, a dawn prayer for Ramadan, the name "Bahá" appears four times: "Allahumma inni as 'aluka min Bahá' ika bi Abháh va kulla Bahá' ika Bahí".[13]

See also

Notes

External links

  • http://www.99namesallah.org A Site containing 99 names of Allah with complete reference in the Holy Quran with pdf, powerpoint format also.
  • Al-Rahman al-Rahim. Problems of Interpretation and Translation
  • The Beautiful Names of Allah A site containing the derivation and meanings of the 99 names. Also has audio of someone saying each one.
  • 99 Names of Allah a more concise account on the attributes of Allah
  • The Most Beautiful Names of Allah Gives a list of the names in English and Arabic as well as the verses in which they are found in the Qur'an.
  • Oil paintings of all the 99 names of Allah Also you can view 99 names of Muhammad.
  • 319 Attributes of Allah Allah's Attributes with English and Urdu translations.
  • (French) Exegesis of Names Of Allah