New Classical Architecture
New Classical architecture is a contemporary movement in architecture, that continues the practice of classical and traditional architecture. The design and construction of buildings in these traditions is continuous throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, even as modernist and other post-classical theories of architecture have been more dominant.
Since New Classical architecture is not an architectural style and can appear in various forms, contemporary classical buildings might be also, although not correctly, be described with the terms Traditionalism, Neo-Historism (or Historicism/Revivalism), or simply Neoclassical Architecture, implying the continuation of a specific historical style. Some theorists also perceive it as a part of the Postmodern or New Urbanist movements, of which the former contributed to a renewed interest in historic forms in general, and the latter to an openness to learning from traditional methods of urban and architectural design.
Contemporary buildings that continue the language of early modern movements, such as Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Streamline Moderne and Expressionism, may also be described as New Classical or New Traditional architecture.
- 1 Development
- 2 Philosophy of New Classical Architecture
- 3 Driehaus Prize for New Classical Architecture
- 4 Education
- 5 Organisations in New Classical architecture
- 6 Examples
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Roots in Europe
At the beginning of the 20th century, historicism and Jugendstil were still dominant styles in Germany. The Austrian architect Adolf Loos criticized his time's architecture as too "grandiloquent" and "opulent", and longed for a complete abandonment of architectural ornaments in his 1910 essay Ornament and Crime. Along with the British Arts and Crafts movement, a major clash between "modernist" and "traditionalist" architectural visions loomed. As early as the first major modernist movements like Werkbund and Bauhaus gained momentum in Germany, the desire to continue and develop classical styles sprouted. From 1904 until around 1955 the Heimatschutz style prospered in Germany, which focusses on vernacular traditions and can be roughly translated to cultural protection style. Examples of this early new classical style are the Hamburg Museum, the Prinzipalmarkt in Münster and the market square of Freudenstadt. The 1922-1931 Böttcherstrasse in Bremen is an expressionist approach towards regional Brick Gothic architecture. After heavy Allied bombing of Germany in World War II, architects such as Adolf Abel, Roderich Fick, Konstanty Gutschow, Werner March, Paul Schmitthenner, Julius Schulte-Frohlinde, and Rudolf Wolters assisted in the postwar rebuilding of destroyed German cities using Heimatschutz and other traditional design methods.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s the architect Raymond Erith continued to design classical houses in England despite the Modernist Movement. Quinlan Terry, a New Classical Architect who continues to practice with his son Francis Terry, was an employee, later a partner and now the successor of the late Raymond Erith. In the late 1970s several young architects in Europe began challenging modernist proposals in architecture and planning. To broadcast them, Leon Krier and Maurice Culot founded the Archives d'Architecture Moderne in Brussels and began publishing texts and counterprojects to modernist proposals in architecture and planning. Krier's work and that of others was introduced to America through Andreas Papadakis' editorship of London-based "Architectural Design" and "Academy Editions". In Britain it received a boost from the sponsorship of Charles, Prince of Wales, especially with The Prince's Foundation for Building Community.
In the United States
In the 1930s, and continuing until the 1980s, primarily in the George M. White (1920-2011).
Critics of the reductionism of modernism often noted the abandonment of the teaching of architectural history as a causal factor. The fact that a number of the major players in the shift away from modernism were trained at Princeton University's School of Architecture, where recourse to history continued to be a part of design training in the 1940s and 1950s, was significant. The increasing rise of interest in history had a profound impact on architectural education. History courses became more typical and regularized. With the demand for professors knowledgeable in the history of architecture, several PhD programs in schools of architecture arose in order to differentiate themselves from art history PhD programs, where architectural historians had previously trained. In the US, MIT and Cornell were the first, created in the mid-1970s, followed by Columbia, Berkeley, and Princeton. Among the founders of new architectural history programs were Bruno Zevi at the Institute for the History of Architecture in Venice, Stanford Anderson and Henry Millon at MIT, Alexander Tzonis at the Architectural Association, Anthony Vidler at Princeton, Manfredo Tafuri at the University of Venice, Kenneth Frampton at Columbia University, and Werner Oechslin and Kurt Forster at ETH Zürich. The creation of these programs was paralleled by the hiring, in the 1970s, of professionally trained historians by schools of architecture: Margaret Crawford (with a PhD from U.C.L.A) at SCI-Arc; Elisabeth Grossman (PhD, Brown University) at Rhode Island School of Design; Christian Otto (PhD, Columbia University) at Cornell University; Richard Chafee (PhD, Courtauld Institute) at Roger Williams University; and Howard Burns (M.A. Kings College) at Harvard.
In these years postmodern architecture developed a critique of modernist architectural aesthetics. Among them were certain influential postmodernist architects such as Charles Moore, Robert Venturi and Michael Graves who used classical elements as ironic motifs in order to criticize modernism's sterility. A broad spectrum of more than two dozen architects, theorists, and historians presented other alternatives to modernism. Among them were several serious New Classical architects who saw classicism as a legitimate mode of architectural expression, several of whom would later become Driehaus Prize Laureates, including some such as Thomas Beeby and Robert A.M. Stern, who practice both in post modern as well as classical modes. Some postmodern architects, such as Robert A. M. Stern and Albert, Righter, & Tittman, fully moved from postmodern design to new interpretations of traditional architecture.
Thomas Gordon Smith, the 1979 Rome Prize laureate from the American Academy in Rome, was a devotee of Charles Moore. In 1988 Smith Published "Classical Architecture - Rule and Invention" and in 1989 was appointed to be chair of the University of Notre Dame Department of Architecture, which is now the School of Architecture. Smith and colleague Duncan Stroik transformed the program into the only architecture school entirely dedicated to classical architecture. Others joining the faculty had come from Colin Rowe's program at Cornell University and Jaquelin T. Robertson's at University of Virginia. Several architects used their offices to nurture young architects in classicism, among them Allan Greenberg, John Blatteau, and Alvin Holm. Michael Lykoudis left Greenberg to join Notre Dame's faculty in 1991 and, in 2004, become its Dean.
Today other programs exist which teach in part New Classical Architecture at the University of Miami, Judson University, Andrews University and beginning in 2013, the Center for Advanced Research in Traditional Architecture at the University of Colorado Denver.
Alongside the academic and scholarly development of the new classicism as a reaction to Modernist hegemony in formal architectural academia, a populist and professional manifestation of contemporary and new classicism has existed and continues to develop. The 1963 demolition of McKim, Meade and White's Pennsylvania Railroad Station in New York City provoked the formation of Classical America and its regional chapters, led by Henry Hope Reed, Jr.. Classical America advocated the appreciation of classically inspired buildings and for the practice of contemporary classical and traditional design by teaching architects to draw the classical orders, hosting walking tours, educational events, conferences and publishing The Classical America Series in Art and Architecture. Its members and proponents carried on the tradition of classical and traditional architectural design throughout the 1960s and 1970s.
Also through the mid-twentieth century, interior decoration and design offices maintained the practice of traditional and classical design in interior decoration. Most notably, the office of Institute of Classical Architecture & Art).
The ICAA currently supports and is supported by regional chapters across the United States, almost all of which host awards programs  which recognize significant accomplishments in new classical and traditional design and construction. The ICAA publishes The Classicist, a peer-reviewed journal exclusively dedicated to the theory and practice of contemporary classicism in architecture, urbanism, and the allied arts. The ICAA offers educational programs to architecture and design professionals, many of which follow the methodologies of the École des Beaux-Arts. The ICAA also teaches courses to educate the general public, and has created programs such as the Beaux Arts Atelier, the Advanced Program in Residential Design for the American Institute of Building Designers, and many other unique programs. It also awards the Rieger Graham Prize for architecture and the Alma Schapiro Prize for fine artists.
Philosophy of New Classical Architecture
Fundamental tenets of the New Classicism is that it is not limited to neoclassical architecture and that "classical" is not a style in itself, but a way of elevating the art of building to the art of architecture. A classical building uses imitation to express its tectonic truth, which is not the same as the facts of its construction, and finds its beauty not in originality and style but in the handling of the traditional forms that have always been its vehicles. Classical buildings also always account for the differences between the public and the private realms in addressing the urban and rural conditions where they are built.
Driehaus Prize for New Classical Architecture
In 2003, Chicago philanthropist Richard H. Driehaus established a prize in architecture to be given to an architect "whose work embodies the principles of classical and traditional architecture and urbanism in society, and creates a positive, long lasting impact." Awarded by the University of Notre Dame School of Architecture, the Driehaus Architecture Prize is seen as the alternative to the merely modernist Pritzker Prize.
The Driehaus Prize is given in conjunction with the Reed Award, for an individual working outside the practice of architecture who has supported the cultivation of the traditional city, its architecture and art through writing, planning or promotion.
Other high-profiled classical architecture awards are the US-American Palladio Award, the Edmund N. Bacon Prize, and the Rieger Graham Prize of the Institute of Classical Architecture and Art (ICAA) for architecture graduates.
LaureatesThe following architects were awarded the Driehaus Prize since 2003:
|Year||Laureate||Nationality||Photo||Example work (years built)||Website||Ref.|
|2003||Krier, LéonLéon Krier||Luxembourg||Village Hall of Windsor, USA (1997)|||
|2004||Porphyrios, DemetriDemetri Porphyrios||Greece||Whitman College, Princeton University, Princeton, USA (2002)||Porphyrios Associates|||
|2005||Terry, QuinlanQuinlan Terry||United Kingdom||Richmond Riverside, London, UK (1984–87)||Quinlan and Francis Terry Architects|||
|2006||Greenberg, AllanAllan Greenberg||South Africa||Dupont Hall at University of Delaware, Newark, USA (1998–2002)||Allan Greenberg LLC|||
|2007||Robertson, Jaquelin T.Jaquelin T. Robertson||United States||Celebration masterplan, Osceola, USA (2000)||Cooper, Robertson & Partners|||
|2008||Duany, AndrésAndrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk||United States||Seaside masterplan, Walton, USA (1980)||Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company|||
|2009||El-Wakil, Abdel-WahedAbdel-Wahed El-Wakil||Egypt||Masjid al-Qiblatain extension, Medina, Saudi Arabia (1980)||Awwakil|||
|2010||Martos, Rafael ManzanoRafael Manzano Martos||Spain||Museo del Prado extension, Madrid, Spain (1990)||Estudio Manzano|||
|2011||Stern, Robert A. M.Robert A. M. Stern||United States||Fell Hall at Brooklyn Law School, New York City, USA (1994)||Robert A. M. Stern Architects|||
|2012||Graves, MichaelMichael Graves||United States||McNair Hall at Jesse Jones Business School, Houston, USA (1999)||Michael Graves & Associates|||
|2013||Beeby, Thomas H.Thomas H. Beeby||United States||Meadows Museum, Dallas, USA||HBRA Architects|||
|2014||Bontempi, Pier CarloPier Carlo Bontempi||Italy||Place de Toscane, Serris, France||Studio Pier Carlo Bontempi|||
|2015||Schwarz, David M.David M. Schwarz||United States||Smith Center for the Performing Arts, Las Vegas, USA||David M. Schwarz Architects|||
While modernist teaching remains dominant at universities and architecture faculties around the world, some institutions focus solely, mainly or partly on teaching the principles of traditional and classical architecture and urban planning. Some of these are:
- In India
- Tirumala S.V. Institute of Traditional Sculpture and Architecture (SVITSA) in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh
- In the United Kingdom
- National Design Academy in Nottingham (heritage interior design)
- The Prince's Foundation for Building Community in London
- The Prince's School of Traditional Arts in London
- University of Portsmouth in Portsmouth, School of Architecture
- PRASADA - Practice, Research, and Advancement in South Asian Design and Architecture in Cardiff, The Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University 
- In the United States
- Andrews University in Berrien Springs, Michigan
- American College of the Building Arts and School of the Arts at College of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina
- The Center for Advanced Research in Traditional Architecture at the University of Colorado in Denver, Colorado
- Judson University in Elgin, Illinois
- University of Miami in Miami, Florida
- Grand Central Academy of Art formerly hosted at the Institute of Classical Architecture and Art (ICAA) in New York City, New York
- University of Notre Dame School of Architecture in Notre Dame, Indiana
- Beaux-Arts Academy in Salt Lake City, Utah
Organisations in New Classical architecture
Various organisations are engaging to revive the general awareness of classical architecture qualities, provide education and donate to related causes. Many of these have a national or regional focus - and might appear in the form of citizens' groups, that work on a townscape-friendly classical building culture in and around historical town centers.
Examples of built new classical structures.
- The structure plan for Thimphu, Bhutan, follows Principles of Intelligent Urbanism, which share underlying axioms with New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture.
- The Qianmen Street leading to the Zhengyangmen Gate in Beijing is a recent development to implement traditional Chinese architecture.
- New Urbanism
- Outline of classical architecture
- Neoclassical architecture
- Revivalism (architecture)
- Postmodern architecture
- New York Five
- Chicago Seven
- James Howard Kunstler
- Current Traditional Architects
- Neo-classicist Architecture. Traditionalism. Historicism.
- Leon Krier and Maurice Culot, "Counterprojets: Prefaces," (Brussels: Archives d'Architecture Moderne, 1980).
- Especially important was Demetri Porphyrios, ed., "Leon Krier, Houses, Palaces, Cities," (London: Architectural Design AD editions, 1984).
- Charles, Prince of Wales, "A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture," (New York: Doubleday, 1989).
- Schwarz Architects about the Smith Center
- Mark Jarzombek, "The Disciplinary Dislocations of Architectural History," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 58/3 (September 1999), p. 489. See also other articles in that issue by Eve Blau, Stanford Anderson, Alina Payne, Daniel Bluestone, Jeon-Louis Cohen and others.
- Cornell University Dept. of Architecture website
- Robert Venturi, "Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture," (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1966).
- Andreas Papadakis and Harriet Watson, eds., "New Classicism: Omnibus Volume," (London: Academy Editions, 1990).
- An important clarion call was that of Demetri Porphyrios, "Classicism is not a Style," in "Architectural Design" vol. 52, no. 5/6, 1982, and reprinted various places.
- New Classical Architecture and 10 years of the Driehaus Prize, Notre Dame School of Architecture (Video)
- INTBAU - A guide to academic institutions/universities teaching New Urbanism and traditional/classical design. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- Tirumala S.V. Institute of Traditional Sculpture and Architecture (SVITSA) in Tirupati, India
- National Design Academy Nottingham, degree course for heritage interior design
- Portsmouth School of Architecture: Design Classical. The school presents its award-winning course in the elements of classical design and how to design in the classical idiom, for CPD credits., PDF, retrieved 10 March 2015
- American College of the Building Arts in Charleston
- Beaux-Arts Academy in Salt Lake City, classical architecture study programs
- Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
- Media related to at Wikimedia Commons
- Illustrated Glossary of Classical Architecture
- Institute of Classical Architecture and Art
- Traditional Architecture Group
- New Classical Architecture and 10 years of the Driehaus Prize (Video)
- INTBAU - A guide to academic institutions/universities teaching New Urbanism and traditional/classical design
- Neohistorism Photo Group - New Classic Architecture
- New Classical Architecture collection