Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
|Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, anankastic personality disorder|
|Classification and external resources|
|Cluster A (odd)|
|Cluster B (dramatic)|
|Cluster C (anxious)|
OCPD is a chronic non-adaptive pattern of extreme perfectionism, preoccupation with neatness and detail, and a need for control or power over one's environment that causes major suffering and stress, especially in areas of personal relationships. Persons with OCPD are usually inflexible and controlling. They may find it hard to relax, and must plan out their activities down to the minute. OCPD occurs in about 1% of the general population. It is seen in 3–10% of psychiatric outpatients. The disorder most often occurs in men.
- 1 Diagnosis
- 2 Etiology
- 3 Comorbidity
- 4 Treatment
- 5 History and theoretical models
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The main symptoms of OCPD are preoccupation with remembering and paying attention to minute details and facts, following rules and regulations, compulsion to make lists and schedules, as well as rigidity/inflexibility of beliefs or showing perfectionism that interferes with task-completion. Symptoms may cause extreme distress and interfere with a person's occupational and social functioning. Most people spend their early life avoiding symptoms and developing techniques to avoid dealing with these strenuous issues.
Some, but not all, people with OCPD show an obsessive need for cleanliness. This OCPD trait is not to be confused with domestic efficiency; over-attention to related details may instead make these (and other) activities of daily living difficult to accomplish. Though obsessive behavior is in part a way to control anxiety, tension often remains. In the case of a hoarder, attention to effectively clean the home may be hindered by the amount of clutter that the hoarder resolves to later organize.
Perception of own and others' actions and beliefs tend to be polarised (i.e., "right" or "wrong", with little or no margin between the two) for people with this disorder. As might be expected, such rigidity places strain on interpersonal relationships, with frustration sometimes turning into anger and even violence. This is known as disinhibition. People with OCPD often tend to general pessimism and/or underlying form(s) of depression. This can at times become so serious that suicide is a risk. Indeed, one study suggests that personality disorders are a significant substrate to psychiatric morbidity. They may cause more problems in functioning than a major depressive episode.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition, (DSM IV-TR = 301.4), a widely used manual for diagnosing mental disorders, defines obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (in Axis II Cluster C) as:
A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control, at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
- is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules to the extent that the major point of the activity is lost
- shows perfectionism that interferes with task completion (e.g., is unable to complete a project because his or her own overly strict standards are not met)
- is excessively devoted to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure activities and friendships (not accounted for by obvious economic necessity)
- is overconscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values (not accounted for by cultural or religious identification)
- is unable to discard worn-out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value
- is reluctant to delegate tasks or to work with others unless they submit to exactly his or her way of doing things
- adopts a miserly spending style toward both self and others; money is viewed as something to be hoarded for future catastrophes
- shows rigidity and stubbornness
Since DSM IV-TR was published in 2000, some studies have found fault with its OCPD coverage. A 2004 study challenged the usefulness of all but three of the criteria: perfectionism, rigidity and stubbornness, and miserliness. A study in 2007 found that OCPD is etiologically distinct from avoidant and dependent personality disorders, suggesting it is incorrectly categorized as a Cluster C disorder.
- It is characterized by at least three of the following:
- feelings of excessive doubt and caution;
- preoccupation with details, rules, lists, order, organization or schedule;
- perfectionism that interferes with task completion;
- excessive conscientiousness, scrupulousness, and undue preoccupation with productivity to the exclusion of pleasure and interpersonal relationships;
- excessive pedantry and adherence to social conventions;
- rigidity and stubbornness;
- unreasonable insistence by the individual that others submit exactly to his or her way of doing things, or unreasonable reluctance to allow others to do things;
- intrusion of insistent and unwelcome thoughts or impulses.
- compulsive and obsessional personality (disorder)
- obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
- obsessive-compulsive disorder
It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.
|Conscientious||Including dependent features||Rule-bound and duty-bound; earnest, hardworking, meticulous, painstaking; indecisive, inflexible; marked self-doubts; dreads errors and mistakes.|
|Bureaucratic||Including narcissistic features||Empowered in formal organizations; rules of group provide identity and security; officious, high-handed, unimaginative, intrusive, nosy, petty-minded, meddlesome, trifling, closed-minded.|
|Puritanical||Including paranoid features||Austere, self-righteous, bigoted, dogmatic, zealous, uncompromising, indignant, and judgmental; grim and prudish morality; must control and counteract own repugnant impulses and fantasies.|
|Parsimonious||Including schizoid features. Resembles Fromm's hoarding orientation||Miserly, tight-fisted, ungiving, hoarding, unsharing; protects self against loss; fears intrusions into vacant inner world; dreads exposure of personal improprietries and contrary impulses.|
|Bedeviled||Including negativistic features||Ambivalences unresolved; feels tormented, muddled, indecisive, befuddled; beset by intrapsychic conflicts, confusions, frustrations; obsessions and compulsions condense and control contradictory emotions.|
Researchers set forth both genetic and environmental theories for what causes OCPD. Under the genetic theory, people with a form of the DRD3 gene will probably develop OCPD and depression, particularly if they are male. But genetic concomitants may lie dormant until triggered by events in the lives of those who are predisposed to OCPD. These events could include trauma faced during childhood, such as physical, emotional or sexual abuse, or other psychological trauma. Under the environmental theory, OCPD is a learned behavior. People get OCPD by copying others throughout childhood. OCPD comes from constant contact throughout childhood between the child and persons (e.g., parents or teachers) who are inflexible, controlling, and obsess over the children under their watch.
OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder
OCPD is often confused with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite the similar names, they are two distinct disorders, although some OCPD individuals also suffer from OCD, and the two are sometimes found in the same family, sometimes along with eating disorders. People with OCPD do not generally feel the need to repeatedly perform ritualistic actions—a common symptom of OCD—and usually find pleasure in perfecting a task, whereas people with OCD are often more distressed after their actions.
Significantly higher rates of OCPD have been found in subjects with OCD, with estimates ranging from 23 to 32 percent. For example perfectionism, hoarding, and preoccupation in details (3 characteristics of OCPD) were found in people with OCD and not in people without OCD, showing a particular relationship with OCD.
There is significant similarity in the symptoms of OCD and OCPD, which can lead to complexity in distinguishing them clinically. For example, perfectionism is an OCPD criterion and a symptom of OCD if it involves the need for tidiness, symmetry, and organization. Hoarding is also considered both a compulsion found in OCD and a criterion for OCPD in the DSM-IV. Even though OCD and OCPD are seemingly separate disorders there are obvious redundancies between the two concerning several symptoms. Regardless of similarities between the OCPD criteria and the obsessions and compulsions found in OCD, there are discrete qualitative dissimilarities between these disorders, predominantly in the functional part of symptoms. Unlike OCPD, OCD is described as invasive, stressful, time-consuming obsessions and habits aimed at reducing the obsession related stress. OCD symptoms are at times regarded as ego-dystonic because they are experienced as alien and repulsive to the person. Therefore, there is a greater mental anxiety associated with OCD.
In contrast, the symptoms seen in OCPD, though they are repetitive, are not linked with repulsive thoughts, images, or urges. OCPD characteristics and behaviors are known as ego-syntonic, as persons with the disorder view them as suitable and correct. On the other hand, the main features of perfectionism and inflexibility can result in considerable suffering in an individual with OCPD as a result of the associated need for control.
Recent studies using DSM-IV criteria have persistently found high rates of OCPD in persons with OCD, with an approximate range of 23% to 32% in persons with OCD. Some data suggest that there may be specificity in the link between OCD and OCPD. OCPD rates are consistently higher in persons with OCD than in healthy population controls using DSM-IV criteria.
While there are superficial similarities between the list-making, inflexible guidelines, and obsessive aspects of Asperger's syndrome and OCPD, the former is different from OCPD especially regarding affective behaviors and restricted interests, including (but not limited to) empathy, recalling every aspect of a subject of interest, non-verbal communication, social cognition, as well as both conversational and general social skills.
OCPD and eating disorders
|This section needs auditing for compliance with the Manual of Style. (March 2013)|
Perfectionist, inflexible, and stiff personality qualities have been identified in people with anorexia nervosa; however, the occurrence of OCPD in people with eating disorders seems low . Perfectionism is a central feature and risk factor for developing an eating disorder. In some individuals with bulimia nervosa, the seemingly conflicting traits of impulsivity and perfectionism are present.
Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, researchers examined the occurrence of OCPD in a variety of eating disorder diagnostic groups. They found that only 9% of 105 patients met the criteria for OCPD. Only 6% of anorectic restrictors met this diagnosis compared with 13% of the binge type anorectics. The same study also identified subthreshold OCPD (the presence of symptoms that did not meet the threshold for diagnosis) in 18% of the anorexia nervosa patients. Furthermore, none of the normal-weight bulimia nervosa patients in this study met the threshold criteria for the diagnosis of OCPD; yet, six met the subthreshold diagnostic criteria. This finding suggests that bulimia nervosa patients may have some, but not all, of the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive personality, along with impulsive behaviors.
In a sample of mixed anorexics and bulimics, 22% met the criteria for the diagnosis of OCPD when assessed for personality disorders using the Structured Interview for DSM Personality Disorders-Revised (SIDP).
Treatment for OCPD includes psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, behavior therapy or self-help. Medication may be prescribed. In behavior therapy, a patient discusses with a psychotherapist ways of changing compulsions into healthier, productive behaviors. Cognitive analytic therapy is an effective form of behavior therapy.
Treatment is complicated if the patient does not accept that they have OCPD, or believes that their thoughts or behaviors are in some sense correct and therefore should not be changed. Medication in isolation is generally not indicated for this personality disorder, but fluoxetine has been prescribed with success.
Psychotherapy is not always available, therefore people are advised to read as much as possible about the disorder and seek the cooperation of their families and friends to remind them in a non-confrontational manner when they begin engaging in OCPD behaviours. Self-help may be crucial for a swift accommodation to having to deal with people and situations in what may seem an unfamiliar manner. Self-insight is no less significant. Self-help techniques include keeping a diary for noting down anything that is upsetting, anxiety-provoking, or that overwhelms and depresses the OCPD individual. Family members can help by making a note of their observations and sharing them in a non-confrontational manner.
People with OCPD are three times more likely to receive individual psychotherapy than people with major depressive disorder. There are higher rates of primary care utilization. There is no treatment for OCPD that has been thoroughly validated. There are no known properly controlled studies of treatment options for OCPD. More research is needed to explore better treatment options.
History and theoretical models
In 1908, Sigmund Freud named what is now known as obsessive–compulsive or anankastic personality disorder "anal retentive character". He identified the main strands of the personality type as a preoccupation with orderliness, parsimony (frugality), and obstinacy (rigidity and stubbornness). The concept fits his theory of psychosexual development.
OCPD was first included in DSM-II, and was in large based on Sigmund Freud's notion of the obsessive personality or anal-erotic character style characterized by orderliness, parsimony, and obstinacy.
The diagnostic criteria for OCPD have gone through considerable changes with each DSM modification. For example, the DSM-IV stopped using two criteria present in the DSM-III-R, constrained expression of affection and indecisiveness, mainly based on reviews of the empirical literature that found these traits did not contain internal consistency. Since the early 1990s, considerable research continues to characterize OCPD and its core features, including the tendency for it to run in families along with eating disorders and even to appear in childhood. According to the DSM-IV, OCPD is classified as a 'Cluster C' personality disorder. There was a dispute about the categorization of OCPD as an Axis II anxiety disorder. It is more appropriately for OCPD alongside OC spectrum disorders including OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, compulsive hoarding, trichotillomania, compulsive skin-picking, tic disorders, autistic disorders, and eating disorders.
Although the DSM-IV attempted to distinguish between OCPD and OCD by focusing on the absence of obsessions and compulsions in OCPD, OC personality traits are easily mistaken for abnormal cognitions or values considered to underpin OCD. Aspects of self-directed perfectionism, such as believing a perfect solution is commendable, discomfort if things are sensed not to have been done completely, and doubting one's actions were performed correctly, have also been proposed as enduring features of OCD. Moreover, in DSM-IV field trials, a majority of OCD patients reported being unsure whether their OC symptoms really were unreasonable.
- Baer, Lee. (1998). "Personality Disorders in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder". In Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: Practical Management. Third edition. Jenike, Michael et al. (eds.). St. Louis: Mosby.
- Daniel, Gwyneth. (2008). "All You Need To Know About OCPD and Perfectionism". Willows Books Publishing. UK. ISBN 978-1-9013-7511-4
- Freud, S. (1959, original work published 1908).Character and Anal Eroticism, in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, 9, 170–71. James Strachey, ed. London: Hogarth. ISBN 978-0-7012-0067-1 ISBN 0-7012-0067-7
- Jenike, Michael. (1998). "Psychotherapy of Obsessive–compulsive Personality". In Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: Practical Management. Third edition. Jenike, Michael et al. (eds.). St. Louis: Mosby.
- Kay, Jerald et al. (2000). "Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder". In Psychiatry: Behavioral Science and Clinical Essentials. Jenike, Michael et al. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
- MacFarlane, Malcolm M. (ed.) (2004). Family Treatment of Personality Disorders. Advances in Clinical Practice. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.
- Penzel, Fred. (2000). Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders: A Complete Guide to Getting Well and Staying Well. Oxford University Press, USA. MPN 0195140923
- Ryle, A. & Kerr, I. B. (2002). Introducing Cognitive Analytic Therapy: Principles and Practice. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-85304-7.
- Salzman, Leon. (1995).Treatment of Obsessive and Compulsive Behaviors, Jason Aronson Publishers. ISBN 1-56821-422-7
- DSM IV-TR year 2000 criteria for OCPD
- Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder