Actual use of the practice as an aid to contemplation of basic principles of the cosmos and human nature is found in the practice of yoga of Hinduism and sometimes in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Some consider the navel to be "a powerful chakra of the body".
However, phrases such as "contemplating one's navel" or "navel-gazing" are frequently used, usually in jocular fashion, to refer to self-absorbed pursuits.
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary omphaloskepsis
- Becker, Udo (2000). The Continuum Encyclopedia of Symbols.
- Craig, Royal L. (2010). Whispers beyond the Edge.
- Norbu, Chogyal Namkhai (2008). Yantra Yoga. Snow Lion. p. 15.
- Lyn, E.R. (2009). Abbreviations Acronyms Glossary for American Readers. CreateSpace. p. 490.