Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs"; the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies."
Public administration is "centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programmes as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct" Many unelected public servants can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (H.R.) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public servants working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government.
- Definitions 1
- Antiquity to the 19th century 2.1
US in the 1940s 2.2
- 1950s to the 1970s 2.2.1
- 1980s–1990s 2.3
- Late 1990s–2000 2.4
- Approaches 3
- Core branches 4
Decision-making models 5
- Niskanen's budget-maximizing 5.1
- Dunleavy's bureau-shaping 5.2
Academic field 6
- Comparative public administration 6.1
- Master's degrees 6.2
- Doctoral degrees 6.3
- Notable scholars 6.4
- International public administration 7
See also 8
- Societies 8.1
- Notes and references 9
- External links 10
- Suggested reading 11
In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action". In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen. One year later, Gordon Clapp, then Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration "as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more completely realized." This implies that it must "relate itself to concepts of justice, liberty, and fuller economic opportunity for human beings" and is thus "concerned with "people, with ideas, and with things." According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, " The Study of Administration" in 1887 is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study".
Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, 
More recently scholars claim that "public administration has no generally accepted definition", because the "scope of the subject is so great and so debatable that it is easier to explain than define". Public administration is a field of study (i.e., a discipline) and an occupation. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline, largely because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research. Scholar Donald Kettl is among those who view public administration "as a subfield within political science".
The North American Industry Classification System definition of the Public Administration (NAICS 91) sector states that public administration "... comprises establishments primarily engaged in activities of a governmental nature, that is, the enactment and judicial interpretation of laws and their pursuant regulations, and the administration of programs based on them". This includes "Legislative activities, taxation, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, and the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature".
From the academic perspective, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States defines the study of public administration as "A program that prepares individuals to serve as managers in the executive arm of local, state, and federal government and that focuses on the systematic study of executive organization and management. Includes instruction in the roles, development, and principles of public administration; the management of public policy; executive-legislative relations; public budgetary processes and financial management; administrative law; public personnel management; professional ethics; and research methods."
Antiquity to the 19th century
Dating back to Antiquity, Pharaohs, kings and emperors have required pages, treasurers, and tax collectors to administer the practical business of government. Prior to the 19th century, staffing of most public administrations was rife with nepotism, favoritism, and political patronage, which was often referred to as a "spoils system". Public administrators have been the "eyes and ears" of rulers until relatively recently. In medieval times, the abilities to read and write, add and subtract were as dominated by the educated elite as public employment. Consequently, the need for expert civil servants whose ability to read and write formed the basis for developing expertise in such necessary activities as legal record-keeping, paying and feeding armies and levying taxes. As the European Imperialist age progressed and the militarily powers extended their hold over other continents and people, the need for a sophisticated public administration grew.
The eighteenth-century noble, King Frederick William I of Prussia, created professorates in Cameralism in an effort to train a new class of public administrators. The universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and University of Halle were Prussian institutions emphasizing economic and social disciplines, with the goal of societal reform. Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi was the most well-known professor of Cameralism. Thus, from a Western European perspective, Classic, Medieval, and Enlightenment-era scholars formed the foundation of the discipline that has come to be called public administration.
Lorenz von Stein, an 1855 German professor from Vienna, is considered the founder of the science of public administration in many parts of the world. In the time of Von Stein, public administration was considered a form of administrative law, but Von Stein believed this concept too restrictive. Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many prestablished disciplines such as sociology, political science, administrative law and public finance. He called public administration an integrating science, and stated that public administrators should be concerned with both theory and practice. He argued that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientific method.
Modern American public administration is an extension of democratic governance, justified by classic and liberal philosophers of the western world ranging from Aristotle to John Locke to Thomas Jefferson.
In the United States of America, Woodrow Wilson is considered the father of public administration. He first formally recognized public administration in an 1887 article entitled "The Study of Administration." The future president wrote that "it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy." Wilson was more influential to the science of public administration than Von Stein, primarily due to an article Wilson wrote in 1887 in which he advocated four concepts:
- Separation of politics and administration
- Comparative analysis of political and private organizations
- Improving efficiency with business-like practices and attitudes toward daily operations
- Improving the effectiveness of public service through management and by training civil servants, merit-based assessment
The separation of politics and administration has been the subject of lasting debate. The different perspectives regarding this dichotomy contribute to differentiating characteristics of the suggested generations of public administration.
By the 1920s, scholars of public administration had responded to Wilson's solicitation and thus textbooks in this field were introduced. A few distinguished scholars of that period were,
- Dubois, H.F.W. & Fattore, G. (2009), 'Definitions and typologies in public administration research: the case of decentralization', International Journal of Public Administration, 32(8): 704–727.
- Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2007). Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications. ISBN 978-983-195-253-5
- Smith, Kevin B. and Licari, Michael J. Public Administration — Power and Politics in the Fourth Branch of Government, ISBN 1-933220-04-X
- White,Jay D. and Guy B. Adams. Research in public administration: reflections on theory and practice.1994.
- Donald Menzel and Harvey White (eds) 2011. The State of Public Administration: Issues, Challenges and Opportunity. New York: M. E. Sharpe.
- Gov Monitor: A public administration, policy and public sector website
- Public Administration Theory Network (PAT-Net) : This is an international network of professionals concerned with the advancement of public administration theory.
- The Global Public Administration Resource : A forum where practitioners, academics and students can discuss topics in public administration.
- United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN): A body which aims to establish an Internet-based network that links regional and national institutions devoted to public administration.
- "Random House Unabridged Dictionary". Dictionary.infoplease.com. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- Handbook of Public Administration. Eds Jack Rabin, W. Bartley Hildreth, and Gerard J. Miller. 1989: Marcel Dekker, NY. p. iii
- Robert and Janet Denhardt. Public Administration: An Action Orientation. 6th Ed. 2009: Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont CA.
- Kettl, Donald and James Fessler. 2009. The Politics of the Administrative Process. Washington D.C.: CQ Press.
- Jerome B. McKinney and Lawrence C. Howard. Public Administration: Balancing Power and Accountability. 2nd Ed. 1998: Praeger Publishing, Westport, CT. p. 62
- UN Economic and Social Council. Committee of Experts on Public Administration. Definition of basic concepts and terminologies in governance and public administration. 2006
- Wilson, Woodrow. June, 1887. The Study of Administration, Political Science Quarterly 2.
- Public administration. (2010) In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved August 18, 2010, from Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
- Shafritz, J.M., A.C. Hyde. 2007. Classics of Public Administration. Wadsworth: Boston.
- Appleby, Paul 1947. "Toward Better Public Administration," Public Administration Review Vol. 7, No. 2 pp. 93-99.
- Clapp, Gordon. 1948. "Public Administration in an Advancing South." Public Administration Review Vol. 8. no. 2 pp. 169-175. Clapp attributed part of this definition to Charles Beard.
- Carroll, J.D. & Zuck, A.M. (1983). "The Study of Public Administration Revisited". A Report of the Centennial Agendas project of the American Society for Public Administration. Washington, DC; American Society for Public Administration.
- Shields, Patricia. 1998. "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration" Research in Public Administration Vol. 4. pp. 195-225.
- Shields, Patricia. 1998. "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration" Research in Public Administration Vol. 4. pp. 199.
- Haveman, R. H. (1987). Policy analysis and evaluation research after twenty years. "Policy Studies Journal", 16(1): 191-218.
- Kettl, Donald F. "THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION" (PDF). H-net.org. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "Definition Public Administration (NAICS 91)". Ic.gc.ca. Retrieved October 25, 2010.
- "CIP user site". Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- Second Treatise on Government
- Declaration of Independence
- Ryan, M., Mejia, B., and Georgiev, M. (Ed). 2010. AM Gov 2010. McGraw Hill: New York.
- Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2007). Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications. ISBN 978-983-195-253-5
- Frederick W. Taylor. (1856-1915). 'Principles of Scientific Management.' New York & London: Harper Brothers; Also see, Jeong Chun Hai @Ibrahim, & Nor Fadzlina Nawi. (2007). Principles of Public Administration: An Introduction. Kuala Lumpur: Karisma Publications. ISBN 978-983-195-253-5
- "Our Web Site Has Moved!". Aspanet.org. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- Fry, Brian R. 1989. Mastering Public Administration; from Max Weber to Dwight Waldo. Chatham, New Jersey: Chatham House Publishers, Inc. page 80
- Public Administration Review, Vol. 56, No. 3 (May – Jun., 1996), pp. 247–255
- Elmore, R.F. (1986). Graduate education in public management: Working in the seams of government. "Journal of Policy Analysis and Management", 6(1): 69-83.
- Patrick Dunleavy, Helen Margetts et al, 'New public management is dead: Long live digital era governance', Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, (July 2006).
- Diane Stone, (2008) 'Global Public Policy, Transnational Policy Communities and their Networks,' Journal of Policy Sciences.
- Denhardt , Robert B. and Janet Vinzant Denhardt (2000). "The New Public Service: Serving Rather than Steering." Public Administration Review 60(6)
- Aucoin, Peter (2008). New Public Management and the Quality of Government: Coping with the New Political Governance in Canada, Conference on "New Public Management and the Quality of Government", SOG and the Quality of Government Institute, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, 13–15 November 2008, p.14.
- Watson,S. & Pfeiffer, D. (1992). A Case study for including disability policy issues in public policy curricula. In: R. Elmore, Curriculum and Case Notes. "Journal of Policy Analysis and Management", 11(1): 167-173.
- Zola, I. Introduction. In: S.T. Brown, (1993). "An Independent Living Approach to Disability Policy Studies". Berkeley, CA: Research and Training Center on Public Policy And Independent Living, World Institute on Disability.
- Racino, J. (in press, 2014). "Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US". NY, NY: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.
- Corduneanu-Huci, Cristina; Hamilton, Alexander; Masses Ferrer, Issel (2012). Understanding Policy Change: How to Apply Political Economy Concepts in Practice. Washington DC.: The World Bank.
- Dubois, Hans F. W.; Fattore, Giovanni (2009). International Journal of Public Administration 32 (8). Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 704–727.
- Haroon A. Khan. Introduction to Public Administration. University Press of America, 2008. P. 33
- Corkery, J., Dddak, T., O'Nuallain, C. & Land, T. (1998). "Management of Public Service Reform." Amsterdam, Netherlands and Tokyo, Japan: IOS Press and Ohmaha.
- Haroon A. Khan. Introduction to Public Administration. University Press of America, 2008 p. 34
- Bowling, C. J. & Wright, D.S. (1998, winter). Public administration in the fifty states: A half Century revolution. "State and Local Government Review", 30(1): 52-64.
- Racino, J. (in press, 2014). "Public Administration and Disability: Community Services Administration in the US". NY, NY and Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Francis and Taylor.
- "NASPAA International Web Portal". Globalmpa.net. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "APSA - American Political Science Association". Apsanet.org. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
- "Indian Institute Of Public Administration - Home". Iipa.org.in. Retrieved 2014-08-23.
Notes and references
- International Institute of Administrative Sciences
- American Society for Public Administration
- Brazilian National School of Public Administration
- Chinese Public Administration Society
- Dutch Association for Public Administration
- Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration
- Indian Institute of Public Administration
- Korea Institute of Public Administration
- Philippine Society for Public Administration
- Public Administration Association of Nepal
- Royal Institute of Public Administration
- Administration (government)
- Administrative law
- Civil society
- Community services administration
- Doctor of Public Administration
- Municipal government
- Professional administration
- Public administration theory
- Public management – focusing on the efficiency and effectiveness of a government
- Public policy
- Public policy schools
- Theories of administration
NISPAcee is a network of experts, scholars and practitioners who work in the field of public administration in Central and Eastern Europe, including the Russian Federation and the Caucasus and Central Asia. The US public administration and political science associations like NASPAA, American Political Science Association (APSA) and American Society of Public Administration (ASPA). These organizations have helped to create the fundamental establishment of modern public administration.
The Center for Latin American Administration for Development (CLAD), based in Caracas, Venezuela, this regional network of schools of public administration set up by the governments in Latin America is the oldest in the region. The Institute is a founding member and played a central role in organizing the Inter-American Network of Public Administration Education (INPAE). Created in 2000, this regional network of schools is unique in that it is the only organization to be composed of institutions from North and Latin America and the Caribbean working in public administration and policy analysis. It has more than 49 members from top research schools in various countries throughout the hemisphere.
Also the International Committee of the US-based Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs, and Administration (NASPAA) has developed a number of relationships around the world. They include sub regional and National forums like CLAD, INPAE and NISPAcee, APSA, ASPA.
IASIA is an association of organizations and individuals whose activities and interests focus on public administration and management. The activities of its members include education and training of administrators and managers. It is the only worldwide scholarly association in the field of public management. EGPA, LAGPA and AGPA are the regional sub-entities of the IIAS.
The oldest is the International Institute of Administrative Sciences. Based in Brussels, Belgium, the IIAS is a worldwide platform providing a space for exchanges that promote knowledge and practices to improve the organization and operation of Public Administration and to ensure that public agencies will be in a position to better respond to the current and future expectations and needs of society. The IIAS has set up four entities: the International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration (IASIA), the European Group for Public Administration (EGPA), The Latin American Group for Public Administration (LAGPA) and the Asian Group for Public Administration (AGPA).
There are several organizations that are active. The Commonwealth Association of Public Administration and Management CAPAM is perhaps the most diverse, covering the 54 member states of the Commonwealth from India to Nauru. Its biennial conference brings together ministers of public service, top officials and leading scholars in the field.
International public administration
Notable scholars of public administration have come from a range of fields. In the period before public administration existed as its own independent discipline, scholars contributing to the field came from economics, sociology, management, political science, administrative law, and, other related fields. More recently, scholars from public administration and public policy have contributed important studies and theories.
There are two types of doctoral degrees in public administration: the Doctor of Public Administration and the Ph.D. in Public Administration. The Doctor of Public Administration (DPA) is an applied-research doctoral degree in the field of public administration, focusing on practice. The DPA requires a dissertation and significant coursework beyond the Masters level. Upon successful completion of the doctoral requirements, the title of "Doctor" is awarded and the post-nominals of D.P.A. are often added. Some universities use the Ph.D. as their doctoral degree in public administration (e.g., Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada).
A unique mid-career Master's Program (e.g., Maxwell Mid-Career Program at Syracuse University began by Robert Iversen in the 1970s) may be offered to assist existing Public Managers or Community Managers to advance in their knowledge and careers, while continuing full-time employment. Community programs may be site of internships, and continuing education credits which can be used by managers and staff members.
The MPA is related to similar graduate level government studies programs including MA programs in public affairs, public policy, and political science. Differences often include program emphases on policy analysis techniques or other topical focuses such as the study of international affairs as opposed to focuses on constitutional issues such as separation of powers, administrative law, contracting with government, problems of governance and power, and participatory democracy.
Some public administration programs have similarities to business administration programs, in cases where the students from both the MPA and MBA programs take many of the same courses . [In 2014, this similarity is due in part to 7 times federal contracts over the number of federal employees in government.] In some programs, the MPA (or MAPA) is more clearly distinct from the MBA, in that the MPA often emphasizes substantially different ethical and sociological criteria that are traditionally secondary to that of profit for business administrators.
Comparative public administration is defined as the study of administrative systems in a comparative fashion or the study of public administration in other countries. Another definition for "comparative public administration" is the "quest for patterns and regularities in administrative action and behavior". There have been several issues which have hampered the development of comparative public administration, including: the major differences between Western countries and developing countries; the lack of curriculum on this subfield in public administration programs; and the lack of success in developing theoretical models which can be scientifically tested. The Comparative Administration group has defined CPA as, "the of publicadministration applied to diverse cultures and national setting and the body of factual data, by which it can be examined and tested." Accordingly to Jong S. Jun, "CPA has been predominantly cross-cultural and cross-national in orientation." Due to the organization of governments in the US, comparative studies of state governments and practices also are considered central not simply local or national.
Comparative public administration
Public administration theory is the domain in which discussions of the meaning and purpose of government, the role of bureaucracy in supporting democratic governments, budgets, governance, and public affairs takes place. In recent years, public administration theory has periodically connoted a heavy orientation toward critical theory and postmodern philosophical notions of government, governance, and power. However, many public administration scholars support a classic definition of the term emphasizing constitutionality, public service, bureaucratic forms of organization, and hierarchical government.
One public administration scholar, Donald Kettl, argues that "...public administration sits in a disciplinary backwater", because "...[f]or the last generation, scholars have sought to save or replace it with fields of study like implementation, public management, and formal bureaucratic theory". Kettl states that "public administration, as a subfield within political science...is struggling to define its role within the discipline". He notes two problems with public administration: it "has seemed methodologically to lag behind" and "the field’s theoretical work too often seems not to define it"-indeed, "some of the most interesting recent ideas in public administration have come from outside the field".
One minor tradition that the more specific term "public management" refers to ordinary, routine or typical management concerns, in the context of achieving public good. Others argue that "public management" refers to a newer, market-driven perspective on the operation of government. This latter view is often called "new public management" by its advocates. New Public Management represents a reform attempt, aimed at reemphasizing the professional nature of the field. This will replace the academic, moral or disciplinary emphasis. Some theorists advocate a bright line differentiation of the professional field from related academic disciplines like political science and sociology; it remains interdisciplinary in nature.
The goals of the field of public administration are related to the democratic values of improving equality, justice, security, efficiency, effectiveness of public services usually in a non-profit, non-taxable venue; business administration, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with taxable profit. For a field built on concepts (accountability, governance, decentralization, clientele), these concepts are often ill-defined and typologies often ignore certain aspects of these concepts (Dubois & Fattore 2009).
In the United States, the academic field of public administration draws heavily on political science and administrative law. Some MPA programs include economics courses to give students a background in microeconomic issues (markets, rationing mechanisms, etc.) and macroeconomic issues (e.g., national debt). Scholars such as John A. Rohr write of a long history behind the constitutional legitimacy of government bureaucracy. In Europe (notably in Britain and Germany), the divergence of the field from other disciplines can be traced to the 1720s continental university curriculum. Formally, official academic distinctions were made in the 1910s and 1890s, respectively.
In 1971, Professor William Niskanen proposed a rational choice variation which he called the "budget-maximizing model". He claimed that rational bureaucrats will universally seek to increase the budgets of their units (to enhance their stature), thereby contributing to state growth and increased public expenditure. Niskanen served on President Reagan's Council of Economic Advisors; his model underpinned what has been touted as curtailed public spending and increased privatization. However, budgeted expenditures and the growing deficit during the Reagan administration is evidence of a different reality. A range of pluralist authors have critiqued Niskanen's universalist approach. These scholars have argued that officials tend also to be motivated by considerations of the public interest.
Given the array of duties public administrators find themselves performing, the professional administrator might refer to a theoretical framework from which he or she might work. Indeed, many public and private administrative scholars have devised and modified decision-making models.
Public Administration also has responsibility for core content areas in the university sector which have traditionally included: Housing and community development, family studies at health and human services, labor and employment organizations, recreation, tourism and economic development, transportation systems, administrative law for areas such as public utilities, Personnel systems and workforces, non-profit sector and development, new IT technological developments, and the triparte of government (legislative, Executive, judicial).
- Organizational theory in public administration is the study of the structure of governmental entities and the many particulars inculcated in them.
- Ethics in public administration serves as a normative approach to decision making.
- Policy analysis serves as an empirical approach to decision making.
- Public budgeting is the activity within a government that seeks to allocate scarce resources among unlimited demands.
- Human resource management is an in-house structure that ensures that public service staffing is done in an unbiased, ethical and values-based manner. The basic functions of the HR system are employee benefits, employee health care, compensation, and many more (e.g., human rights, Americans with Disabilities Act). [The Executives managing the HR Director and other key Departmental personnel is also the subject of Public Administration.]
In academia, the field of public administration consists of a number of sub-fields. Scholars have proposed a number of different sets of sub-fields. One of the proposed models uses five "pillars":
- Business or market systems approach
- Social sciences research approach
- Statistical and engineering approach
- Feminist or gender studies approach
- Disability public policy approach
- Universal vs person-centred approaches
- Family studies, theories and community development
- Systems approach
- Ecological approach
- Contingency approach
- Behavioural approach
- Participatory/democratic approach
- Competency/functional approach
- Public good and common good approaches
- Public management approach
- Public administration approach
- Public contracting and provision approach
- Public choice approach
- Community services administration (US and global)
Increasingly, public policy academics and practitioners have utilized the theoretical concepts of political economy to explain policy outcomes such as the success or failure of reform efforts and/or the persistence of sub-optimal outcomes.
In the mid-1980s, the goal of community programs in the US was often represented by terms such as independent living, community integration, inclusion, community participation, deinstitutionalization, and civil rights. Thus, the same public policy (and public administration) was to apply to all citizens, inclusive of disability. However, by the 1990s, categorical state systems were strengthened in the US (Racino, in press, 2014), and efforts were made to introduce more disability content into the public policy curricula with disability public policy (and administration) distinct fields in their own right. Behaviorists have also dominated "intervention practice" (generally not the province of public administration) in recent years, believing that they are in opposition to generic public policy (termed ecological theory, of the late Urie Brofenbrenner).
Another new public service model is what has been called New Public Governance, an approach which includes a centralization of power; an increased number, role and influence of partisan-political staff; personal-politicization of appointments to the senior public service; and, the assumption that the public service is promiscuously partisan for the government of the day.
In the late 1990s, Janet and Robert Denhardt proposed a new public services model in response to the dominance of NPM. A successor to NPM is digital era governance, focusing on themes of reintegrating government responsibilities, needs-based holism (executing duties in cursive ways), and digitalization (exploiting the transformational capabilities of modern IT and digital storage).One example of this is openforum.com.au, an Australian non-for-profit eDemocracy project which invites politicians, senior public servants, academics, business people and other key stakeholders to engage in high-level policy debate.
Some critics argue that the New Public Management concept of treating people as "customers" rather than "citizens" is an inappropriate borrowing from the private sector model, because businesses see customers as a means to an end (profit), rather than as the proprietors of government (the owners), opposed to merely the customers of a business (the patrons). In New Public Management, people are viewed as economic units not democratic participants which is the hazard of linking a MBA (business administration, economic and employer-based model)too closely with the public administration (governmental, public good) sector. Nevertheless, the model (one of 4 described by Elmore in 1986, including the "generic model") is still widely accepted at all levels of government and in many OECD nations.
Some modern authors define NPM as a combination of splitting large bureaucracies into smaller, more fragmented agencies, encouraging competition between different public agencies, and encouraging competition between public agencies and private firms and using economic incentives lines (e.g., performance pay for senior executives or user-pay models). NPM treats individuals as "customers" or "clients" (in the private sector sense), rather than as citizens.
In the late 1980s, yet another generation of public administration theorists began to displace the last. The new theory, which came to be called Clinton Administration (1993–2001), Vice President Al Gore adopted and reformed federal agencies using NPM approaches. In the 1990s, new public management became prevalent throughout the bureaucracies of the US, the UK and, to a lesser extent, in Canada. The original public management theories have roots attributed to policy analysis, according to Richard Elmore in his 1986 article published in the "Journal of Policy Analysis and Management".
Concurrently, after World War II, the whole concept of public administration expanded to include policy-making and analysis, thus the study of ‘administrative policy making and analysis’ was introduced and enhanced into the government decision-making bodies. Later on, the human factor became a predominant concern and emphasis in the study of Public Administration. This period witnessed the development and inclusion of other social sciences knowledge, predominantly, psychology, anthropology, and sociology, into the study of public administration (Jeong, 2007). Henceforth, the emergence of scholars such as, Fritz Morstein Marx with his book ‘The Elements of Public Administration’ (1946), Paul H. Appleby ‘Policy and Administration’ (1952), Frank Marini ‘Towards a New Public Administration’ (1971), and others that have contributed positively in these endeavors.
There was a call by citizens for efficient administration to replace ineffective, wasteful bureaucracy. Public administration would have to distance itself from politics to answer this call and remain effective. Elected officials supported these reforms. The Hoover Commission, chaired by University of Chicago professor Louis Brownlow, to examine reorganization of government. Brownlow subsequently founded the Public Administration Service (PAS) at the university, an organization which has provided consulting services to all levels of government until the 1970s.
During the 1950s, the United States experienced prolonged prosperity and solidified its place as a world leader. Public Administration experienced a kind of heyday due to the successful war effort and successful post war reconstruction in Western Europe and Japan. Government was popular as was President Eisenhower. In the 1960s and 1970s, government itself came under fire as ineffective, inefficient, and largely a wasted effort. The costly American intervention in Vietnam along with domestic scandals including the bugging of Democratic party headquarters (the 1974 Watergate scandal) are two examples of self-destructive government behavior that alienated citizens.
1950s to the 1970s
Gulick developed a comprehensive, generic theory of organization that emphasized the scientific method, efficiency, professionalism, structural reform, and executive control. Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym; POSDCORB, which stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. Fayol developed a systematic, 14-point, treatment of private management. Second-generation theorists drew upon private management practices for administrative sciences. A single, generic management theory bleeding the borders between the private and the public sector was thought to be possible. With the general theory, the administrative theory could be focused on governmental organizations.The mid-1940s theorists challenged Wilson and Gulick. The politics-administration dichotomy remained the center of criticism.
Luther Gulick and Henri Fayol, Fredrick Winslow Taylor, Paul Appleby, Frank Goodnow, and Willam Willoughby. The new generation of organizational theories no longer relied upon logical assumptions and generalizations about human nature like classical and enlightened theorists.
The separation of politics and administration advocated by Wilson continues to play a significant role in public administration today. However, the dominance of this dichotomy was challenged by second generation scholars, beginning in the 1940s. Luther Gulick's fact-value dichotomy was a key contender for Wilson's proposed politics-administration dichotomy. In place of Wilson's first generation split, Gulick advocated a "seamless web of discretion and interaction".
US in the 1940s
The American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) the leading professional group for public administration was founded in 1939. ASPA sponsors the journal Public Administration Review, which was founded in 1940.
Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system (approach): ‘It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone.’
- Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks.
- Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.
- Provide ‘Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task’ (Montgomery 1997: 250).
- Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.
Taylor's approach is often referred to as Taylor's Principles, and/or Taylorism. Taylor's scientific management consisted of main four principles (Frederick W. Taylor, 1911):