S&P 500 Component
|Industry||Aerospace and defense|
|Founded||Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States (1922)|
Laurence K. Marshall
Charles G. Smith
Thomas A. Kennedy
Number of employees
|63,000 (March 2014)|
|Website||www.Raytheon.com (established 1999)|
The Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007. Raytheon is the world's largest producer of guided missiles.
Established in 1922, the company reincorporated in 1928 and adopted its present name in 1959. The company has around 63,000 employees worldwide and annual revenues of approximately US$25 billion. More than 90% of Raytheon's revenues were obtained from military contracts and, as of 2012, it was the fifth-largest military contractor in the world, and is the fourth largest defense contractor in the United States by revenue.
Raytheon's headquarters moved from Lexington, Massachusetts, to Waltham, Massachusetts, in 2003. The company was previously headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, from 1922 to 1928, Newton, Massachusetts, from 1928 to 1941, Waltham from 1941 to 1961, Lexington from 1961 to 2003, and back to Waltham from 2003 onwards.
- Early years 1.1
- During World War II 1.2
- After World War II 1.3
- 1980s 1.4
- 1990s 1.5
- 2000s 1.6
- 2010s 1.7
Company structure 2
- Strategic Business Areas 2.1.1
- Leadership 2.2
- International 2.3
- Ownership 2.4
- Businesses 2.1
Products and services 3
- Overview 3.1
- Air traffic control systems 3.2
- Radars and sensors 3.3
- Satellite sensors 3.4
- Communications 3.5
- Radioactive materials detection system 3.6
- Semiconductors 3.7
- Missile defense systems 3.8
- Missiles 3.9
- Hi-tech simulators 3.10
- Training Services and Learning Outsourcing 3.11
- Government relationship 4.1
- Case of illegally obtaining classified information in a bidding process 4.2
- Disputed claims of the Patriot missile 4.3
- Contract disputes 4.4
- Brazilian SIVAM project 4.5
- AGES lawsuit 4.6
- Securities litigation 4.7
- Swanson's Unwritten Rules of Management 4.8
- Silent Guardian testing on prisoners 4.9
- Harvesting personal data from social networking websites 4.10
- Environmental record 5
Corporate Social Responsibility 6
- Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Education 6.1
- Armed Services Support 6.2
- Philanthropy 6.3
- Employee Engagement 6.4
- Workplace diversity 6.5
- Advocacy 6.6
- See also 7
- References 8
- External links 9
In 1922, two former Tufts engineering college roommates Laurence K. Marshall and Vannevar Bush, along with scientist Charles G. Smith, founded the American Appliance Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Its focus, which was originally on new refrigeration technology, soon shifted to electronics. The company's first product was a gaseous (helium) rectifier that was based on Charles Smith's earlier astronomical research of the star Zeta Puppis. The electron tube was christened with the name Raytheon ("light of/from the gods") and was used in a battery eliminator, a type of radio-receiver power supply that plugged into the power grid in place of large batteries. This made it possible to convert household alternating current to direct current for radios and thus eliminate the need for expensive, short-lived batteries.
In 1925, the company changed its name to Raytheon Manufacturing Company and began marketing its rectifier, under the Raytheon brand name, with great commercial success. In 1928 Raytheon merged with Q.R.S. Company, an American manufacturer of electron tubes and switches, to form the successor of the same name, Raytheon Manufacturing Company. In 1933 it diversified by acquiring Acme-Delta Company, a producer of transformers, power equipment, and electronic auto parts. By the 1930s, it had already grown to become one of the world's largest vacuum tube manufacturing companies.
During World War II
Early in World War II, physicists in the United Kingdom invented the magnetron, a specialized microwave-generating electron tube that markedly improved the capability of radar to detect enemy aircraft. American companies were then sought by the US government to perfect and mass-produce the magnetron for ground-based, airborne, and shipborne radar systems, and, with support from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Radiation Laboratory (recently formed to investigate microwave radar), Raytheon received a contract to build the devices. Within a few months of being awarded the contract, Raytheon had already begun to mass manufacture magnetron tubes for use in radar sets and then complete radar systems. At war's end in 1945 the company was responsible for about 80 percent of all magnetrons manufactured. During the war Raytheon also pioneered the production of shipboard radar systems, particularly for submarine detection. Raytheon ranked 71st among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.
Raytheon's research on the magnetron tube revealed the potential of microwaves to cook food. In 1945, Raytheon's Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven by discovering that the magnetron could rapidly heat food. In 1947, the company demonstrated the Radarange microwave oven for commercial use.
After World War II
In 1945, the company expanded its electronics capability through acquisitions that included the Submarine Signal Company (founded in 1901), a leading manufacturer of maritime safety equipment. With its broadened capabilities, Raytheon developed the first guidance system for a missile that could intercept a flying target. In 1948, Raytheon began to manufacture guided missiles. In 1950, its Lark missile became the first such weapon to destroy a target aircraft in flight. Raytheon then received military contracts to develop the air-to-air Sparrow and ground-to-air Hawk missiles—projects that received impetus from the Korean War. In later decades, it remained a major producer of missiles, among them the Patriot antimissile missile and the air-to-air Phoenix missile. In 1959, Raytheon acquired the marine electronics company Apelco Applied Electronics, which significantly increased its strength in commercial marine navigation and radio gear, as well as less-expensive Japanese suppliers of products such as marine/weather band radios and direction-finding gear. In the same year, it changed its name to Raytheon Company.
During the post-war years, Raytheon also made generally low- to medium-powered radio and television transmitters and related equipment for the commercial market, but the high-powered market was solidly in the hands of larger, better financed competitors such as Continental Electronics, General Electric and Radio Corporation of America, in the US and got into the educational publishing business with the acquisition of D.C. Heath. In the 1950s, Raytheon began manufacturing transistors, including the CK722, priced and marketed to hobbyists.
In 1961, the British electronics company A.C. Cossor merged with Raytheon, following its sale by Philips. The new Company's name was Raytheon Cossor. The Cossor side of the organisation is still current in the Raytheon group as of 2010.
In 1965, it acquired Amana Refrigeration, Inc., a manufacturer of refrigerators and air conditioners. Using the Amana brand name and its distribution channels, Raytheon began selling the first countertop household microwave oven in 1967 and became a dominant manufacturer in the microwave oven business.
In 1980, Raytheon acquired Beech Aircraft Corporation, a leading manufacturer of general aviation aircraft founded in 1932 by Walter H. Beech. In 1993 the company expanded its aircraft activities by adding the Hawker line of business jets by acquiring Corporate Jets Inc., the business jet product line of British Aerospace (now BAE Systems). These two entities were merged in 1994 to become the Raytheon Aircraft Company. In the first quarter of 2007 Raytheon sold its aircraft operations, which subsequently operated as Hawker Beechcraft, and since 2014 have been units of Textron Aviation. The product line of Raytheon's aircraft subsidiary included business jets such as the Hawker 800XP and Hawker 4000, the Beechjet 400A, and the Premier I; the popular King Air series of twin turboprops; and piston-engine aircraft such as the Bonanza. Its special-mission aircraft included the single-turboprop T-6A Texan II, which the United States Air Force and United States Navy had chosen as their primary training aircraft.
In 1991, during the Persian Gulf War, Raytheon's Patriot missile received great international exposure, resulting in a substantial increase in sales for the company outside the United States. In an effort to establish leadership in the defense electronics business, Raytheon purchased in quick succession Dallas-based E-Systems (1995), Chrysler Corporation's defense electronics and aircraft-modification businesses, which had previously acquired companies such as Electrospace systems (1996) (portions of these businesses were later sold to L-3 Communications), and the defense unit of Texas Instruments—Defense Systems & Electronics Group (1997). Also in 1997, Raytheon acquired the aerospace and defense business of Hughes Aircraft Company from Hughes Electronics Corporation—a subsidiary of General Motors, which included a number of product lines previously purchased by Hughes Electronics including the former General Dynamics missile business (Pomona facility), the defense portion of Delco Electronics (Delco Systems Operations), and Magnavox Electronic Systems.
Raytheon also divested itself of several nondefense businesses in the 1990s, including Amana Refrigeration and Seismograph Service Ltd (sold to Schlumberger-Geco-Prakla). On October 12, 1999 Raytheon exited the personal rapid transit (PRT) business as it terminated its PRT 2000 system due to high-cost of development and lack of interest. The PRT 2000 prototype now sits idle at their Marlboro, Massachusetts facility.
In November 2007, Raytheon purchased Sarcos for an undisclosed sum, seeking to expand into robotics research and production.
In September 2009, Raytheon entered into an agreement to acquire BBN Technologies. The acquisition was completed on October 29, 2009.
In December 2010, AST(Applied Signal Technology) agreed to be acquired by military contractor Raytheon for $490 million.
Raytheon is composed of four major business divisions:
- Integrated Defense Systems—based in Tewksbury, Massachusetts; Wes Kremer, President
- Intelligence, Information and Services—based in Dulles, Virginia; Dave Wajsgras, President
- Missile Systems—based in Tucson, Arizona; Taylor W. Lawrence, President
- Space and Airborne Systems—based in McKinney, Texas; Rick Yuse, President.
- Raytheon Business Exports Federation based in San Antonio, Texas
Raytheon’s businesses are supported by several dedicated international operations including: Raytheon Australia; Raytheon Canada Limited; operations in Japan; Raytheon Microelectronics in Spain; Raytheon UK (formerly Raytheon Systems Limited); and ThalesRaytheonSystems, France.
Strategic Business Areas
In recent years, Raytheon has expanded into other fields while redefining some of its core business activities. Raytheon has identified four key 'Strategic Business Areas' where it is focusing its expertise and resources, including:
- Homeland Security
- Missile Defense
- Precision Engagement
- Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR)
- Process Improvement (Raytheon Lean6)
On March 31, 2014, Thomas Kennedy was named CEO & Global Head of Quality Assurance of Raytheon Company. Dr. Kennedy succeeds William H. Swanson, who has served as the Chief Executive Officer of Raytheon Company since 2003, and who advised the Board of his intention to step down from his position as Chief Executive Officer. William H. Swanson remains as Chairman and Thomas A. Kennedy continues to sit on the Board. Other members of the board of directors of Raytheon are: Vernon Clark, James E. Cartwright, John Deutch, Stephen J. Hadley, George R. Oliver, Frederic Poses, Michael Ruettgers, Ronald Skates, William Spivey, and Linda Stuntz.
In addition to its US domestic facilities, Raytheon has offices in countries worldwide, including Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Norway, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom.
As of December 2014, according to filed reports, the top ten institutional shareholders of Raytheon are Wellington Management Company, Vanguard Group, State Street Corporation, Barrow, Hanley, Mewhinney & Strauss, BlackRock Institutional Trust Company, BlackRock Advisors, Bank of America, Bank of New York Mellon, Deutsche Bank and Macquarie Group.
Products and services
Raytheon provides electronics, mission systems integration and other capabilities in the areas of sensing; effects; and command, control, communications and intelligence systems; as well as a broad range of mission support services. View an alphabetical listing of Raytheon's major products and services.See Raytheon products for products manufactured and sold by Raytheon Company
Raytheon's electronics and defense-systems units produce air-, sea-, and land-launched missiles, aircraft radar systems, weapons sights and targeting systems, communication and battle-management systems, and satellite components.
Air traffic control systems
- FIRSTplus Air Traffic Control Simulator
- AutoTrac III ATM System
Radars and sensors
Raytheon is a developer and manufacturer of radars (including AESAs), electro-optical sensors, and other advanced electronics systems for airborne, naval and ground based military applications. Examples include:
- APG-63/APG-70 radars for the F-15 Eagle
- APG-65/APG-73/APG-79 radars for the F/A-18 Hornet
- APG-77 radar for the F-22 Raptor (joint development with Northrop Grumman )
- ALE-50 towed decoy
- ALR-67(V)3 and ALR-69A radar warning receivers
- AN/APQ-181 (AESA upgrade currently in development), for the B-2 Spirit bomber
- Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) for the RQ-4 Global Hawk UAV
- ASQ-228 ATFLIR (Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infrared) pod
- TPQ-36/TPQ-37 Firefinder and MPQ-64 Sentinel mobile battlefield radars
- F-16 RACR Designed for the F-16 using AESA technology
- SLQ-32 shipboard EW system
- Large fixed-site radars such as PAVE PAWS, BMEWS, and the Missile Defense Agency X-band Radar (XBR)
Raytheon, often in conjunction with Boeing, Lockheed Martin or Northrop Grumman, is also heavily involved in the satellite sensor business. Much of its Space and Airborne Systems division in El Segundo, CA is devoted to this, a business it inherited from Hughes. Examples of programs include:
- Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS), being developed for the Ballistic Missile Defense. Raytheon is building the sensor payload. Additionally, the El Segundo site is the company center of excellence for the development and production of laser products.
- Raytheon company's Navy Multiband Terminal (NMT) is the first advanced, next-generation satellite communications (SATCOM) system to successfully log on to and communicate with the U.S. government's Milstar SATCOM system using low and medium data rate waveforms. The system provides naval commanders and sailors with greater data capacity, as well as improved protection against enemy intercept and jamming.
- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), was developed by Raytheon Space and Airborne Sensors and is currently in operation on the Suomi NPP satellite. Future deliveries of VIIRS will fly onboard JPSS to continue the operational space based climate and weather sensing legacy of the MODIS sensors.
- Raytheon's Universal Control System (UCS) is an unmanned aerial system (UAS) "cockpit" that improves operator awareness and efficiency, while providing the ability to control multiple unmanned aircraft, and reduce potential accidents.
- The company also makes several software radio and digital communication systems for military applications such as Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC), is participating in Navy-Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI), ECHELON and the Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT) programs.
Radioactive materials detection system
As part of the company's growing homeland security business and strategic focus, Raytheon has teamed with other contractors to develop an Advance Spectroscopic Portal (ASP) to allow border officials to view and identify radioactive materials in vehicles and shipping containers more effectively.
Raytheon also manufactures semiconductors for the electronics industry. In the late 20th century it produced a wide range of integrated circuits and other components, but as of 2003 its semiconductor business specializes in gallium arsenide (GaAs) components for radio communications as well as infrared detectors. It is also making efforts to develop gallium nitride (GaN) components for next-generation radars and radios.
Missile defense systems
In the framework of Ground-Based Midcourse Defense, Raytheon is developing a Ground Based Interceptor (GBI) that includes a booster missile and a kinetic Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV), along with several key radar components, such as the Sea-Based X-Band Radar (SBX) and the Upgraded Early Warning Radar (UEWR).
Raytheon is a developer of missiles and related missile defense systems. These include:
- AGM-65 Maverick
- AGM-88 HARM
- AGM-129 Advanced Cruise Missile
- AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon
- AIM-7 Sparrow
- AIM-9 Sidewinder
- AIM-120 AMRAAM
- BGM-71 TOW
- BGM-109 Tomahawk
- FGM-148 Javelin
- FIM-92 Stinger
- GBU-28 Paveway III
- MIM-23 Hawk
- MIM-104 Patriot
- RIM-7 Sea Sparrow
- RIM-161 Standard Missile 3
- RIM-162 ESSM
- Small Tactical Munition
In a jointly managed project with Hughes Aircraft Co., Raytheon developed the Air Warfare Simulation (AWSIM2), currently used by the USAF for battle staff training at simulation centers worldwide.
Raytheon also produces and runs the ABACUS (Advanced BAttlespace CompUter Simulation) or Higher Formation Trainer (HFT) for training HQs from small specialist units up to corps level.
Training Services and Learning Outsourcing
Raytheon Professional Services (RPS) is a global leader in training services and learning outsourcing for over 75 years. Clients are offered training tailored to their needs. The scope of each contract can vary from short-term training initiatives and projects to multi-year outsourcing engagements for some or all of a client’s training function. Services include: (1) Performance Consulting & Learning Strategy Development, (2) Training Design, Development & Delivery, (3) Learning Technologies and (4)Training Administration
As the vast majority of Raytheon's revenues have been obtained from defense contracts, there has been a tight relationship of cooperation between itself and the
- Raytheon Company
- Raytheon Company Semiconductor Division Files Kept to Monitor the Electronics Industry, 1965–1986(call number M0661; 11.5 linear ft.) are housed in the Department of Special Collections and University Archives at Stanford University Libraries
- Direct political contributions
- Raytheon Company Political Action Committee 2012 political contributions
- . Raytheon Investor Relations
- Missile maker hopes to diversify, create technology for peacetime. Sazhightechconnect.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Raytheon Company : Investor Relations : FAQs. Investor.raytheon.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-25.
- New Raytheon Headquarters to Open October 27 in Waltham, Mass. October 22, 2003 Raytheon.
- Raytheon Australia. History. Raytheon Marketing Material.
- Otto J. Scott, The Creative Ordeal, (New York, Atheneum, 1974),16–32
- Raytheon Company: The Early Days. Raytheon.com. September 30, 2007. Retrieved on 2012-02-04. Archived April 15, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
- PRT 2000 System Concept, "Design and Commercialization of the PRT 2000 Personal Rapid Transit System" by S. J. Gluck, R. Tauber and B. Schupp. University of Washington Web Server.
- Raytheon PRT Prospects Dim but not Doomed. Peter Samuel. October, 1999.
- Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) or Personal Automated Transport (PAT) Quicklinks. University of Washington Web Server.
- Jump up ^ Staff (2007-11-14). "Business Briefs". The Lowell Sun (MediaNews Group).
- Raytheon Announces Agreement to Purchase BBN Technologies WALTHAM, Mass., September 1, 2009. PRNewswire.
- Raytheon Completes Acquisition of BBN Technologies MCKINNEY, Texas, October 26, 2009. PRNewswire.
- Raytheon wins deal for next-generation U.S. Air Force radar. Reuters, 7 October 2014
- "Raytheon Announces Executive Appointments". March 10, 2010, PRNewswire
- Raytheon Announces Revolutionary New 'Cockpit' for Unmanned Aircraft – an Industry First Falls Church, Virginia, October 31, 2006. PR Newswire.
- NSF Award Summary: Top 50 Institutions FY 2007. Dellweb.bfa.nsf.gov. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- Project on Government Oversight. Spring 2004 The Politics of Contracting. Raytheon.
- United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit RAYTHEON COMPANY (doing business as Raytheon Systems Company), Appellant, v. Thomas E. White, SECRETARY OF THE ARMY, Appellee. 01-1350
- Raytheon (2005). . Human Rights Campaign.
- U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, Global Trust members. Usglc.org. Retrieved on 2012-02-04.
- List of United States defense contractors
- Raytheon 9
- CK Raut
- Top 100 US Federal Contractors – $16.1 billion in FY2009
- Raytheon is a leading member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, a Washington D.C.-based coalition of over 400 major companies and NGOs that advocates for a larger International Affairs Budget, which funds American diplomatic, humanitarian, and development efforts abroad.
- In 2005, Raytheon adopted equal employment opportunity policies regarding transgender and transsexual employees.
- On October 26, 2006, Raytheon was recognized by U.S. Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao as a recipient of the 2006 New Freedom Initiative (NFI) Award for the company’s commitment to recruit, train, hire and promote individuals with disabilities.
- In 2007, leadership at Raytheon organized the Creating Pathways to Work retreat, a daylong strategic-visioning event bringing together key representatives of federal and state government, educators, members of the business community and advocates for people with disabilities, along with Rhode Island Congressman Jim Langevin, the first quadriplegic elected to Congress. They sought to address the barriers and challenges people with disabilities face when trying to enter the workforce.
Raytheon employees actively support MathMovesU events across the country and they embrace Raytheon’s promise to honor veterans. Raytheon employees joined the company in donating more than $550,000 in support of disaster relief in 2013, including $450,000 in combined donations to The One Fund Boston. Employees also donated $6.5 million to educational institutions and local cultural, social service and civic organizations.
Raytheon employees continue to demonstrate their personal commitment to furthering STEM education, empowering Armed Services members, and supporting local community projects. In 2013, Raytheon employees donated their time to more than 2,600 organizations across 41 states.
Raytheon offered philanthropic support to a number of additional organizations in 2013, providing resources to service members and their families, including the Congressional Medal of Honor, Air Force Aid Society, the U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation, the CIA Officers Memorial Foundation, the Marine Corps Scholarship Foundation, the United Service Organizations, the Military Child Education Coalition, the Special Operations Warrior Foundation, and the National World War II Museum.
Student Veterans of America: Raytheon and Student Veterans of America first joined forces in 2012 with the shared mission of empowering veterans by helping them achieve their higher education goals. The Raytheon-SVA Scholarship is designed to help veterans earn secondary and advanced degrees in STEM subjects. Raytheon’s support also provides funding for veterans’ leadership training, mentoring and career guidance, as well as research initiatives.
Wounded Warrior Project: Raytheon’s $2.5 million partnership with the Wounded Warrior Project (WWP) continues to make a meaningful difference in the lives of wounded veterans and their families. To date, more than 2,700 veterans have graduated from the partnership’s Transition Training Academy, which provides information technology training to injured service members and their caregivers who want to compete for 21st century IT jobs.
Since 2005, Raytheon has invested more than $21 million in supporting Armed Service members.
Armed Services Support
Interactive Digital Channels: MathMovesU.com exposes students to the excitement of math in a series of entertaining ways while providing parents and educators with a range of innovative resources. Its MathMovesU presences on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram extend the reach and engagement of the MathMovesU message to followers and fans.
MathMovesU STEM Education Events: Thousands of Raytheon employees worldwide shared their knowledge and skills by mentoring students as part of our MathMovesU STEM education initiative in 2013 — providing students with hands-on, project-based learning, one-on-one tutoring, and real-life math and science applications.
Sum of all Thrills presented by Raytheon: For the fourth year, Raytheon’s Sum of All Thrills experience at INNOVENTIONS at Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort helped park-goers find their “inner-engineer,” as they designed and experienced their own thrill rides. More than two million people have experienced Sum of All Thrills to date.
Raytheon MATHCOUNTS National Competition: In 2013, 224 of the most gifted middle school mathematics students and their coaches competed in the prestigious 2013 Raytheon MATHCOUNTS National Competition — once again representing all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Department of Defense and State Department schools worldwide. In 2013, Raytheon extended its support of MATHCOUNTS through 2018.
Museum of Science, Boston’s Engineering is Elementary (EiE) Program: Raytheon awarded more than 100 EiE scholarships to teachers in 28 states in 2013. Raytheon and EiE also launched the second of three EiE training hubs, in Alabama. EiE’s teacher training workshops and curriculum resources have reached more than 61,000 teachers and 4.5 million students. Raytheon and the Museum of Science, Boston also came together in 2013 with Injaz, a member of Junior Achievement Worldwide, to bring EiE’s The Little Engineer curriculum to students in the Middle East, further supporting the region’s STEM education imperative.
MathAlive! Presented by Raytheon: Raytheon’s MathAlive! is a traveling museum exhibition designed to capture the imaginations of middle and elementary school students, bringing math to life. In 2013, MathAlive! continued its tour of U.S. scientific centers, while MathAlive! Middle East debuted in the United Arab Emirates. In total, nearly one million people have visited MathAlive!.
Since 2005, Raytheon has committed nearly $110 million to STEM education initiatives through its flagship MathMovesU program. MathMovesU engages with students from elementary school through college, supports educators and policymakers, and promotes racial and gender equality within the STEM field.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Education
Corporate Social Responsibility
The activists were charged with criminal damage and affray. The trial of six of the accused began May 19, 2008, in the Laganside Courts in Belfast. Colm Bryce, Gary Donnelly, Kieran Gallagher, Michael Gallagher, Sean Heaton, Jimmy Kelly, Paddy McDaid and Eamonn O'Donnell were acquitted of all charges on 11 June, with Eamonn McCann found guilty of the theft of two computer discs.
On 9 August 2006, The Stream Contact Centre in Derry, Northern Ireland, which had a contract with Raytheon at the time, was attacked by protesters. They destroyed the computers, documents, and mainframe of the office, and proceeded to occupy it for eight hours prior to their arrest.
In another case, Raytheon was ordered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to treat groundwater at the Tucson Plant (acquired during the merger with Hughes) in Arizona since Raytheon used and disposed metals, chlorinated solvents, and other substances at the plant since 1951. The EPA further required the installation and operation of an oxidation process system to treat the solvents and make the water safe to drink.
In 1995, Raytheon acquired Dallas-based E-Systems, including a site in trichloroethylene and 1,4-Dioxane. In 2005, groundwater monitoring indicated polluted groundwater was moving into areas outside the site. According to DEP documentation, Raytheon has tested wells on its site since 1996 but had not delivered a final report; therefore, it was given a deadline on May 31, 2008 to investigate its groundwater. Contamination in the area has not affected anyone's drinking water supply or health, yet due to negative local media coverage lawsuits are being filed with claims against Raytheon citing decreases in property values.
Two lawsuits were filed against a Raytheon Company plant in St. Petersburg, Florida, due to concern with health risks, property values, and contamination in April 2008. Raytheon was given until the end of the month to independently test whether or not the groundwater that originated from its area was contaminated. According to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), the groundwater contained carcinogenic contaminants, including trichloroethylene, 1,4-dioxane, and vinyl chloride. The DEP also reported that the clouds contained other toxins, such as lead and toluene.
In 2010 Raytheon developed an "extreme-scale analytics" system named Rapid Information Overlay Technology (RIOT), which allows the user to track people's movements and even predict their behaviour by mining data from social networking sites including Facebook, Twitter, Gowalla, and Foursquare. Raytheon claims that it has not sold this software to any clients, but has shared it with US government and industry.
In August 2010, Raytheon announced that it had partnered with a jail in Castaic, California to use prisoners as test subjects for the new non-lethal Silent Guardian active denial system that "[...] penetrates about a 64th of an inch under your skin. That's about where your pain receptacles are. So it's what it would feel like if you just opened up the doors of a blast furnace."
Silent Guardian testing on prisoners
On April 24, 2006 in a statement released by Raytheon, CEO Swanson admitted to plagiarism in claiming authorship for his booklet, "Swanson's Unwritten Rules of Management," after a report by The New York Times. On May 2, 2006, Raytheon withdrew distribution of the book. The following day, the company's board of directors announced that "In response to this matter, the Board has decided not to raise Mr. Swanson's salary above its 2005 level, and will reduce the amount of restricted stock for which he is eligible in the coming year by 20 percent."
Swanson's Unwritten Rules of Management
In October 1999, Raytheon was the subject of a number of securities class action lawsuits alleging it had issued a series of materially false and misleading statements including overstating the company's 1997 and 1998 revenues, concealing cost overruns and inflating its financial results. The suits were brought in response to a massive drop in value of Raytheon's common stock as traded on the New York Stock Exchange. On Tuesday, October 12, 1999, Raytheon shares traded at about 45% below their level on October 11, 1999. The plunge in stock prices was triggered by a Wall Street Journal report that Raytheon was over cost or behind schedule on more than a dozen fixed-price defense contracts. This crash represented a loss of about $8 billion in market value in a single day. On May 13, 2004 Raytheon reported that it had reached a preliminary agreement to pay $410 million in cash and securities to settle a class-action lawsuit alleging it misled investors by not disclosing difficulties on various Pentagon and construction projects five years before.
In 1996, a corporation called AGES Group filed a lawsuit against Raytheon in a federal court in Alabama over a $450 million contract to service C-12 Huron and U-21 military aircraft. The Boston Herald reported that AGES alleged that the security firm Wackenhut Corporation, hired by Raytheon, used video and audio surveillance to spy on a consulting firm hired by AGES to help it prepare its bid. AGES also alleged that stolen confidential pricing documents were turned over to Raytheon. Both Raytheon and AGES had been vying for the contract, which Raytheon had held for decades but AGES won in 1996. On May 12, 1999, Reuters reported that Raytheon would pay $3 million to AGES Group and purchase $13 million worth of AGES aircraft parts to settle the AGES lawsuit. The settlement was exceptional in that the parties agreed that judgment would be entered against Raytheon, legally establishing the validity of AGES' allegations.
Allegations of bribery were made against Raytheon in 1995 in connection with its efforts to win a 1.4 billion dollar radar contract from Brazil for the SIVAM project. SIVAM, the acronym for "System for Vigilance over the Amazon," was a complex radar surveillance system for use in monitoring the Amazon rainforest, allegedly to curb the trafficking of narcotics and to curb illegal logging or burning of the forest. Brazilian police wiretapped a telephone conversation between a special advisor to the Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, and Raytheon's operative in Brazil, Jose Afonso Assumpcão. According to transcripts published in the Brazilian national weekly Isto É, when Assumpcão told Gomes dos Santos that Brazilian Senator Gilberto Miranda might block the Raytheon contract, Gomes dos Santos responded, "Damn, did you already pay this guy?". Gomes dos Santos and Brazil's aviation minister resigned because of allegations that this conversation suggested that bribes were paid. Nonetheless, Raytheon ultimately was awarded the contract after lobbying by the administration of U.S. President Bill Clinton.
Brazilian SIVAM project
Just one year earlier, on October 14, 1993, Raytheon paid $3.7 million to settle allegations that it misled the United States Department of Defense by overstating the labor costs involved in manufacturing Patriot missiles. "The recovery of this money is yet another warning to contractors that the Truth in Negotiations Act's information disclosure requirements will be strictly and sternly enforced," Frank Hunger, assistant attorney general, said in a statement.
In October 1994, Raytheon paid $4 million to settle a U.S. government claim that it inflated a defense contract for antimissile radar. The PAVE PAWS (Precision Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased Array Warning System) system was designed to detect incoming submarine-launched ballistic missiles. The government claimed in a federal lawsuit that Raytheon inflated a contract to upgrade two of four PAVE PAWS sites by proposing to hire higher-skilled employees than were necessary for the job.
- "The Patriot missile system was not the spectacular success in the Persian Gulf War that the American public was led to believe. There is little evidence to prove that the Patriot hit more than a few Scud missiles launched by Iraq during the Gulf War, and there are some doubts about even these engagements. The public and the United States Congress were misled by definitive statements of success issued by administration and Raytheon representatives during and after the war."
During the 1991 Andover, Massachusetts, during the Gulf War, he declared, the ""Patriot is 41 for 42: 42 Scuds engaged, 41 intercepted!" After the Gulf War had concluded, the staff of the House Government Operations Subcommittee on Legislation and National Security reported,
Disputed claims of the Patriot missile
In March 1990, Raytheon pleaded guilty to one felony count of illegally obtaining classified Air Force budget and planning documents. U.S. District Judge Albert V. Bryan, Jr. imposed a $10,000 criminal fine for one felony count of "conveyance without authority" and $900,000 in civil penalties and damages. The documents allegedly gave Raytheon an unfair advantage against its competitors in bidding for weapons contracts. Although the plea only involved 1983 Air Force documents, United States Attorney Henry Hudson said Raytheon also illegally obtained a wide range of secret Pentagon documents.
Case of illegally obtaining classified information in a bidding process
.U.S. Government disputes with the contract, a former Senator. On the other hand, Raytheon has also been involved in several Warren Rudman, sits on the board of directors, along with Director of Central Intelligence, a former U.S. John M. Deutch, a former United States Deputy Secretary of State, is linked to the company through consultancy work. Richard Armitage And there are many tight ties between the company and all levels of government. For example, ). This, along with heavy lobbying, has led to perennial charges of influence peddling. Raytheon, for instance, contributed nearly a million dollars to various defense-related political campaigns in the presidential election year of 2004, spending much more than that on lobbying expenses.South Pole Station for managing NSF