Reform Party of the United States of America
|Reform Party of the United States of America|
|Political position||Big tent|
|Seats in the Senate|
|Seats in the House|
|State Upper House Seats|
|State Lower House Seats|
|Other elected offices||2 (2013)|
Politics of United States
The Reform Party of the United States of America (RPUSA), generally known as the Reform Party USA or the Reform Party, is a 
The party's most significant victory came when Jesse Ventura was elected governor of Minnesota in 1998.
- Ross Perot's 1992 presidential election campaign 1.1
- 1995 1.2
- 1996 presidential election 1.3
- 1997 1.4
- Mid-term elections of 1998 1.5
- 2000 presidential election 1.6
- 2004 presidential election 1.7
- Activities of the party in 2005 1.8
- 2006 candidates 1.9
- 2008 National Convention 1.10
- 2009 legal action 1.11
- 2010 1.12
- 2012 presidential election 1.13
- Presidential tickets 2
- Platform 3
- Active state affiliates 4
- See also 5
- References 6
- External links 7
Ross Perot's 1992 presidential election campaign
The party grew out of Perot's efforts in the 
A Gallup poll showed Perot with a slim lead, but on July 19 he suspended his campaign, accusing Republican operatives of threatening to sabotage his daughter's wedding. He was accused by 
In 1995, Republicans took control of the House of Representatives, largely on the strength of the "Contract with America", which recognized and promised to deal with many of the issues Perot's voters had mobilized to support in 1992. However, two of the major provisions (Constitutional amendments for term limits and the balanced budgets) failed to secure the two-thirds congressional majorities required to be submitted to the states.
Dissatisfied, the grassroots organizations that had made Perot's 1992 candidacy possible began to band together to found a third party intended to rival the Republicans and Democrats. For legal reasons, the party ended up being called the "Reform Party" ("Independent Party" was preferred, but already taken, as were several variants on the name). A drive to get the party on the ballot in all fifty states succeeded, although it ended with lawsuits in some regions over state 
1996 presidential election
When the 
Between 1992 and 1996, the 
Despite legal action by the Perot team, and an 80% majority of Americans supporting his participation in the debates, the Commission refused to budge and Perot was reduced to making his points heard via a series of half-hour "commercials". In the end, Perot and Choate won 8% of the vote.
As Jackie Salit noted in the Christian Science Monitor: "At its founding meeting in Kansas City in 1997, the 40 black delegates in the room, led by the country’s foremost African-American independent – Lenora Fulani – represented the first time in US history that African-Americans were present at the founding of a major national political party."
By 1997, factional disputes began to emerge with the departure of a small group that believed Perot had rigged the 1996 party primary to defeat Lamm. These individuals eventually established the 
Mid-term elections of 1998
In 1998, the Reform Party received a boost when 
2000 presidential election
The Reform Party's presidential candidate for the 
Donald Trump entered the race briefly, giving television interviews outlining his platform. Trump was progressive on social issues, and supported allowing openly gay soldiers in the military, saying: "it would not disturb me." Trump considered himself a conservative, but criticized Pat Buchanan, saying: "I'm on the conservative side, but Buchanan is Attila the Hun." He withdrew from the race citing the party's infighting, as did Jesse Ventura and the Minnesota Reform Party.
It was suggested that 
After a bitter fight, Pat Buchanan 
In 2002, Buchanan returned to the Republican Party. Many of his campaign supporters also left the Reform Party to form the America First Party.
2004 presidential election
By the October 2003 National Convention, the Reform Party had only begun rebuilding, but several former state organizations had elected to rejoin now that the interference from the Freedom Parties was gone.They increased their ranks from 24 to 30 states, and managed to retrieve ballot access for seven of them. (Buchanan's poor showing in 2000 had lost ballot access for almost the entire party.)
Because of organizational and financial problems in the party, it opted to support the independent campaign of Ralph Nader as the best option for an independent of any stripe that year. While the endorsement generated publicity for Nader and the Reform Party, the party was only able to provide Nader with seven ballot lines down from the 49 of 51 guaranteed ballot lines the party had going into the 2000 election.
In early 2005, press releases from the Reform Party indicated that the party was in the process of rebuilding, with appeals for donations, attempts to reconstitute state party affiliates that were lost during the breakaways of such groups as the Independence Party of Minnesota and the America First Party, and the election of new party officials.
Activities of the party in 2005
In 2005, a dispute arose: the number of National Committee members required under the party's by-laws to call meetings of the National Committee and the Executive Committee did so. These members came from several states including 
In response to a suit filed by the group that met in Tampa, leaders of the Reform Party filed a
- Reform Party of the United States of America
- Elected Officials | Reform Party
- "Tea party activists: Don't confuse them with independents". CSMonitor.com. 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Presidency 2000 - The Reform Party Candidates". Politics1. 2000-09-13. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Independent Gay Forum - Pat Buchanan: On the Record". Indegayforum.org. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Richard Watanabe - Newsweek Quotes, 1999". Sph.umich.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Video: Headlines - Men Behaving Bradley | The Daily Show | Comedy Central". The Daily Show. 2000-02-14. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Buchanan Foster - home". Web.archive.org. 2000-10-18. Archived from the original on 2000-10-18. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "A Third-Party Run for McCain - The Tech". Tech.mit.edu. 2000-04-07. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "FEC rules Buchanan due $12.6 million in campaign funds – Reform Party faction also claimed money". The San Diego Union-Tribune. September 13, 2000. p. A.10.
- "LAWSUIT NEWS, Ballot Access News". Ballot-access.org. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "PRESIDENTIAL BALLOT STATUS, Ballot Access News". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-06-18. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Third Party Watch". Third Party Watch. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- John Eichler (2006-12-13). "COLORADO CUMULATIVE REPORT These returns are compiled and totaled from all counties for all candidates, ballot issues, and ballot questions certified by the secretary of state in accordance with section 1-10-103 (2), C.R.S.This report updated: Wednesday, December 13, 2006 14:28:39 Please use your browser's refresh button to obtain latest results. GENERAL ELECTION". Sos.state.co.us. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- Greg Campbell (2007-10-02). "Greg Campbell, "Eidsness withdraws from 4th District race", ''Greeley Tribune'', Oct. 2, 2007". Greeleytrib.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Reform Party of Florida site". Rpfla.org. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Max Linn's website". Maxlinn.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "BallotAccess.org". BallotAccess.org. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Dallas Reform Party Meeting", www.ballot-access.org, July 7, 2008
- "Rebuilding the Reform Party | Third Party Voices". Ahherald.com. 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Conservative President 2008: Imperato Looking For Reform Party Nomination". Conservativepresident2008.blogspot.com. 2007-02-15. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Ballot Access News » Blog Archive » Federal Judge in New York Hears Reform Party Lawsuit". Ballot-access.org. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Ballot Access News » Blog Archive » Federal Court in New York Issues Ruling in Internal Reform Party Dispute". Ballot-access.org. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Corruption : Corruption News and Photos". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- All Things Considered (2010-02-06). "Pat Choate, Historian Michael Kazin On Tea Party's Appeal". NPR. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Challengers file in 4 Miss. congressional races - WLBT 3 - Jackson, MS:". Wlbt.com. 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- Finn, Tyler (2010-04-02). "Finn, Tyler. "Dan Quayle Urges Tea Party Not to 'Go Perot'" ''CBS News'' April 2, 2010". Cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Reform Party of New Jersey Pat Choate on Tea Parties, Foreign Policy, and NAFTA |". Reformpartynj.org. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2010-06-13.
- "Reform Party chooses Andre Barnett for president;". Ballot Access News. 2012-08-13. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- "Reform Party of the United States nominates fitness model Andre Barnett for president;". Wikinews. 2012-08-14. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- List of political parties in the United States
- Third party (United States)
- Ballot access
- Write-in candidate
- Absentee ballot
- Reform Party of Texas
- Reform Party of California
- Reform Party of New Jersey (refounded in 2010)
- Reform Party of Florida
- Reform Party of New York State
The party's active state affiliates are:
Active state affiliates
A noticeable absence from the Reform Party platform has been social issues, including abortion and gay rights. Reform Party representatives had long stated beliefs that their party could bring together people from both sides of these issues, which they consider divisive, to address what they considered to be more vital concerns as expressed in their platform. The idea was to form a large coalition of moderates; that intention was overridden in 2001 by the Buchanan takeover which rewrote the RPUSA Constitution to specifically include platform planks opposed to any form of abortion. The Buchananists, in turn, were overridden by the 2002 Convention which specifically reverted the Constitution to its 1996 version and the party's original stated goals.
- Maintaining a balanced budget, ensured by passing a Balanced Budget Amendment and changing budgeting practices, and paying down the federal debt
- Campaign finance reform, including strict limits on campaign contributions and the outlawing of the Political action committee
- Enforcement of existing immigration laws and opposition to illegal immigration
- Opposition to World Trade Organization
- Term limits on U.S. Representatives and Senators
- Direct election of the United States President by popular vote
- Federal elections held on weekends
The Reform Party platform includes the following:
- 1996 – Ross Perot and Pat Choate - 8,085,402 votes
- 2000 – Pat Buchanan and Ezola B. Foster - 449,225 votes
- 2004 – Ralph Nader and Peter Camejo - 463,655 votes
- 2008 – Ted Weill and Frank McEnulty - 481 votes
- 2012 – Andre Barnett and Ken Cross - 962 votes
At the national convention, the Reform Party nominated Andre Barnett of New York for President and Ken Cross of Arkansas for Vice President. Among those who sought the nomination before dropping out several months prior to the convention were former Savannah State University football coach Robby Wells, former CIA agent Robert David Steele, economist Laurence Kotlikoff, historian Darcy Richardson, and former Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer.
The Reform Party held its 2012 National Convention in Philadelphia, August 11–12, 2012.
2012 presidential election
On June 29, 2010, Reform Party National Committee chairman David Collison sent Davis a cease-and-desist notice demanding that she immediately change the name under which she was seeking to run for Governor. Davis made no attempt to obtain permission to run as an official Reform Party candidate, and therefore withdrew her use of the Reform Party name. Davis was not a member of the Reform Party. Davis changed her Independent Ballot Line name and file as an independent candidate by obtaining the required signatures needed in New York State to run for Governor on the "Anti-Prohibition" line.
Kristin Davis, the Manhattan madam involved in the Eliot Spitzer scandal, announced on June 27, 2010 that she was running for Governor on an independent line in NYS using the name, Reform Party without Reform Party authorization after failing to secure to Libertarian Party nomination. Davis condemned the Democrats and Republicans for catering to wealthy white males, saying: "Where are the women, the Hispanics, the African-Americans and the gay people? We must reject their tired old thinking...."
Pat Choate in an April 28, 2010 interview with Monmouth University's student newspaper remained suspicious of the Tea Party movement, saying: "At these [Tea Party] events, a professional Republican always speaks. What to me is questionable is that the Tea Parties endorse candidates, but never endorse Democrats—they seem to be a front for the Republican Party. We were seen as very serious. Perot gave millions, we fielded candidates, and we were a real threat to the status quo. The media treats the Tea Parties as a sign of dissatisfaction, and views them skeptically."
In April 2010, 
In February, Congressional candidates filed to run as Reform Party candidates in all four of Mississippi's congressional districts, but none for any statewide offices. Among these are Barbara Dale Washer, Tracella Lou O'Hara Hill, and Anna Jewel Revies.
In February 2010, former Reform Party Chairman Pat Choate emerged to discuss the appeal of the Tea Party movement, contrasting it with Ross Perot's party, saying: "The difference with the Tea Party is it's been heavily pushed by a bunch of talk-show conservatives. You have the Republican Party attempting to use this as a means to pull independents or conservative independents to their policies, to their agenda."
In January 2010, Central Intelligence Agency operations officer Charles S. Faddis announced his support of the party in The Baltimore Sun: "I have decided to throw in my lot with the Reform Party of the United States."
Collison said: "After over two years of litigation in Texas and New York, it is my profound pleasure to announce that US District Court Judge Joseph Bianco of the Eastern District of New York has ruled in our favor, and has further reinforced the 2008 ruling of Judge Carl Ginsberg of the 193rd District Court in Texas."
On December 4, 2009, a New York Federal judge heard MacKay v Crews on the question of who are the legal Reform Party officers. On December 16, 2009 the judge ruled in favor of David Collison's faction.
A long standing feud in the party involved John Blare, of the Reform Party of California, and the Reform Party officers.
2009 legal action
- Alan Keyes, a former diplomat and Republican candidate
- Frank McEnulty who eventually became the Vice Presidential candidate
- Ted Weill, an activist from Mississippi
- Daniel Imperato who later joined the Libertarian Party
- Gene Chapman, a blogger from Denton, Texas
The candidates for the nomination included:
An erroneous news report was broadcast by 
At the national convention, 
The Reform Party held its 2008 National Convention in Dallas, July 18–20.
2008 National Convention
In 2006, the Reform Party nominated candidates in Arizona, and was petitioning to regain ballot access in several other states where state Reform Party organizations were active. The Reform Party of Kansas nominated a slate of candidates led by Iraq War veteran Richard Ranzau. In 2006 gubernatorial election. Linn retained professional campaign staff with connections to the Perot and Ventura campaigns, but received only 1.9% of the vote. As of March 2007 the Reform Party had ballot access for the presidential election in 2008 in four states (Florida, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi) and had already started petitioning in an additional four.