Richmond Park

Richmond Park

Richmond Park
Site of Special Scientific Interest
Isabella Plantation, Richmond Park
Area of Search Greater London
Grid reference
Interest Biological, historical
Area 955 hectares[1]
Notification 1992
Location map Magic Map

Richmond Park in south-west London was created by Charles I in the 17th century[2] as a deer park. The largest of London's Royal Parks, it is of national and international importance for wildlife conservation. The park is a national nature reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation and is included, at Grade I, on Historic England's Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England. Its landscapes have inspired many famous artists and it has been a location for several films and TV series.

The park is a national nature reserve.
Fallow deer in Richmond Park
Beverley Brook in the park
Adams Pond

Richmond Park includes many buildings of architectural or historic interest. The Grade I-listed White Lodge was formerly a royal residence and is now home to the Royal Ballet School. The park's boundary walls and ten other buildings are listed at Grade II, including Pembroke Lodge, the home of 19th-century British Prime Minister Lord John Russell and his grandson, the philosopher Bertrand Russell.

Historically the preserve of the monarch, the park is now open for all to use and includes a golf course and other facilities for sport and recreation. It played an important role in both world wars and in the 1948 and 2012 Olympics.

Contents

  • Overview 1
    • Size 1.1
    • Status 1.2
    • Geography 1.3
  • Organisation 2
    • Governance 2.1
    • Access 2.2
    • Law enforcement 2.3
    • Sport and recreation 2.4
    • Friends of Richmond Park 2.5
  • History 3
    • Public access 3.1
    • Improvements 3.2
    • Wartime use 3.3
    • Petersham Hole 3.4
    • Olympics 3.5
    • International connections 3.6
  • Features 4
    • Gates 4.1
      • Six original gates 4.1.1
      • Other gates 4.1.2
    • Buildings 4.2
      • Holly Lodge 4.2.1
      • Pembroke Lodge 4.2.2
      • Thatched House Lodge 4.2.3
      • White Lodge 4.2.4
      • Other buildings 4.2.5
      • Former buildings 4.2.6
    • Viewpoints 4.3
      • King Henry's Mound 4.3.1
    • Plantings and memorials 4.4
      • James Thomson 4.4.1
      • Ian Dury 4.4.2
  • Nature 5
    • Wildlife 5.1
    • Ponds and streams 5.2
  • In culture 6
    • The Hearsum Collection 6.1
    • Literature 6.2
      • Fiction 6.2.1
      • Non-fiction 6.2.2
    • Art 6.3
      • 17th century 6.3.1
      • 18th and 19th centuries 6.3.2
      • 20th and 21st centuries 6.3.3
      • Historic posters 6.3.4
    • Film 6.4
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • References 9
  • Sources 10
  • External links 11

Overview

Size

Richmond Park is the largest of London's Royal Parks.[3] It is the second-largest park in London (after the 10,000 acre Lee Valley Park, whose area extends beyond the M25 into Hertfordshire and Essex) and is Britain's second-largest urban walled park after Sutton Park,[1] Birmingham. Measuring 3.69 square miles (955 hectares or 2,360 acres),[1] it is comparable in size to Paris's Bois de Vincennes (995 ha or 2,458 ac) and Bois de Boulogne (846 ha or 2,090 ac).[4] It is almost half the size of Casa de Campo (Madrid) (1750 ha or 4324.34 ac)[5] and around three times the size of Central Park in New York (341 ha or 843 ac).[6]

Status

Of national and international importance for wildlife conservation, Richmond Park is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI),[7][8] a National Nature Reserve (NNR)[9] and Special Area of Conservation (SAC).[10][11] The largest Site of Special Scientific Interest in London, it was designated as an SSSI in 1992,[8] excluding the area of the golf course, Pembroke Lodge Gardens and the Gate Gardens.[12] In its citation, Natural England said: "Richmond Park has been managed as a royal deer park since the seventeenth century, producing a range of habitats of value to wildlife. In particular, Richmond Park is of importance for its diverse deadwood beetle fauna associated with the ancient trees found throughout the parkland. In addition the park supports the most extensive area of dry acid grassland in Greater London."[8]

The park was designated as an SAC in April 2005 on account of its having "a large number of ancient trees with decaying timber. It is at the heart of the south London centre of distribution for stag beetle Lucanus cervus, and is a site of national importance for the conservation of the fauna of invertebrates associated with the decaying timber of ancient trees".[13]

Since October 1987 the park has also been included, at Grade I,[14] on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England, being described in Historic England's listing as "A royal deer park with pre C15 origins, imparked by Charles I and improved by subsequent monarchs. A public open space since the mid C19".[15]

Geography

Richmond Park is located in the London Borough of Richmond. It is close to Richmond, Ham, Kingston upon Thames, Wimbledon, Roehampton and East Sheen.[1]

Organisation

Governance

The Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport manages Richmond Park and the other Royal Parks of London under powers set out in the Crown Lands Act 1851, which transferred management of the parks from the monarch to the government. Day-to-day management of the Royal Parks has been delegated to The Royal Parks, an executive agency of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). The Royal Parks' Board sets the strategic direction for the agency. Appointments to the Board are made by the Mayor of London.[16]

  • The Royal Parks and Other Open Spaces Regulations 1997, Statutory Instrument 1997 No.1639, HMSO
  • Royal Parks website
  • Richmond Park map (PDF)
  • Royal Parks' visitor information on Richmond Park
  • Friends of Richmond Park
  • (video, 2014), The Hearsum CollectionThe Heritage Pavilion

External links

  • Michael Baxter Brown (1985). Richmond Park: The History of a Royal Deer Park. London: R. Hale.  
  •  
  • David McDowall (1996). Richmond Park: The Walker's Historical Guide.  
  • Mary Pollard and Ron Crompton (2011). The First 50 Years: a history of the Friends of Richmond Park (PDF).  
  • Paul A Rabbitts (2014). Richmond Park: From Medieval Pasture to Royal Park. Amberley Publishing.  

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  48. ^ "Friends oppose Park screenings".  
  49. ^ "New Jubilee Pond in Richmond Park to be Created".  
  50. ^ Christine Fleming (10 May 2012). "Jubilee pond to open in Richmond Park". Richmond Guardian. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  51. ^ "Work starts on more ponds".  
  52. ^ "Walking Works Campaign".  
  53. ^ "New guide book to Richmond Park".  
  54. ^ June Sampson (2 September 2011). "Trails give us thrill of discovery" (PDF).  
  55. ^ a b Christine Fleming (25 March 2011). "Friends of Richmond Park to mark 50 years of protecting the green space". Wandsworth Guardian. Retrieved 2 April 2012. 
  56. ^ Christine Fleming (3 April 2011). "Sir David Attenborough steps up as Friends of Richmond Park marks golden anniversary".  
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  62. ^ William Douglas Hamilton (editor) (1888). Calendar of State Papers, Domestic series, of the reign of Charles I, 1644, preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office. London:  
  63. ^ H E Malden (1911). "A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3".  
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  66. ^ Kenneth J. Panton (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy.   p. 45
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  68. ^ "A Park Milestone Celebrated".  
  69. ^ Max Lankester,  
  70. ^ Max Lankester (2011). "History" in Guide to Richmond Park.  
  71. ^ a b McDowall, p. 90
  72. ^ McDowall, pp. 121–126
  73. ^ Baxter Brown, p. 150
  74. ^ Pamela Fletcher Jones (1972). Richmond Park: Portrait of a Royal Playground.  
  75. ^ Baxter Brown, p. 51
  76. ^ a b c Cloake, p. 196
  77. ^ a b Cloake, p. 190
  78. ^ Mary Pollard and Robert Wood (17 November 2014). "Richmond Park and the First World War". FRP blog.  
  79. ^ Jonathan Foster (2008). "Remote Controlled Boat". The Death Ray: The Secret Life of Harry Grindell Matthews. Jonathan Foster. Retrieved 6 February 2015. 
  80. ^ Jonathan Foster (2009). The Death Ray: The Secret Life of Harry Grindell Matthews. Inventive Publishing.  
  81. ^ McDowall, pp. 95–96
  82. ^ "South African Military Hospital". Lost Hospitals of London. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  83. ^ a b "The First World War and Richmond Park". The Collection. The Hearsum Collection. 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  84. ^ a b Max Lankester (2011). "History" in Guide to Richmond Park.  
  85. ^ McDowall, p. 91
  86. ^ Mike Osborne (2012). Defending London: A Military History from Conquest to Cold War.  
  87. ^ Compiled by members of the  
  88. ^ Max Lancaster (2011). "History" in Guide to Richmond Park.  
  89. ^ McDowall, p. 97
  90. ^ McDowall, p. 95
  91. ^ Pollard and Crompton, pp.11–12
  92. ^ a b Cloake, p. 201
  93. ^ Chris Parsons (28 July 2012). "Thrills, spills and broken dreams: Dramatic road race gets the Games off to a flier".  
  94. ^  
  95. ^ "Schloß Richmond-Park / Kennelgebiet". Braunschweig. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  96. ^ a b Peter Bessin (2001). Der Regent als Architekt. Schloß Richmond und die Lustschloßbauten Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttels zwischen 1680 und 1780 als Paradigma fürstlicher Selbstdarstellung.  
  97. ^ a b Cloake, p. 192
  98. ^ A. H. C. Christie and J. R. H. Andrews (July 1966). "Introduced ungulates in New Zealand – (D) Fallow deer". Tuatara ( 
  99. ^ Baxter Brown, p. 118
  100. ^ Guide to Richmond Park.  
  101. ^ "Gate design credited to Soane". News.  
  102. ^  
  103. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McDowall, pp. 71–78
  104. ^ Nigel Cox. "A3 Robin Hood Roundabout". Geograph. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  105. ^ "Richmond Park's Robin Hood Gate is to stay closed to benefit local environment, says Culture Minister David Lammy".  
  106. ^ "The Park in March". March Park diaries.  
  107. ^ a b c McDowall, p. 70
  108. ^ Cloake, p. 198
  109. ^ a b c "Famous faces celebrate 20 years of the Holly Lodge Centre in Richmond Park" (Press release).  
  110. ^ a b c d "1076741 – Holly Lodge Centre". Find charities.  
  111. ^ a b "Changes at Holly Lodge Centre". Friends of Richmond Park Newsletter: 6. Autumn 2013. 
  112. ^ a b c "Listed buildings in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames" (PDF).  
  113. ^ Cloake, p. 108
  114. ^ Pollard and Crompton, p. 42
  115. ^ "Gate design credited to Soane".  
  116. ^  
  117. ^  
  118. ^  
  119. ^ "Public Access" (PDF). Richmond Park Management Plan.  
  120. ^ a b Michael Davison (2011). "Buildings" in Guide to Richmond Park.  
  121. ^ Pollard and Crompton, p. 22
  122. ^ "Facilities on site". Holly Lodge Centre. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  123. ^ a b "Introduction: a special place for lerarning". Holly Lodge Centre. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  124. ^ "Organisation". Holly Lodge Centre. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  125. ^ "The Victorian Pharmacy". Holly Lodge Centre. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  126. ^ "The Victorian pharmacy officially opened" (PDF). Stepping Stones. Winter 2011. 
  127. ^ "What is the Holly Lodge Centre?" (PDF). Stepping Stones. Winter 2011. 
  128. ^ H E Malden (editor) (1911). "Parishes: Richmond (anciently Sheen)". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3.  
  129. ^ a b  
  130. ^ Nigel Cox. "Richmond Park: Roehampton Gate and Lodge". Geograph. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  131. ^ "Living in the Parks".  
  132. ^ a b McDowall, p. 73
  133. ^ McDowall, p. 47
  134. ^ a b Margaret Toynbee and Gyles Isham (September 1954). "Joan Carlile (1606?–1679): An Identification".  
  135. ^ Cloake, p. 28
  136. ^ James Adlam (22 January 2004). "Remembering Victorian scientist".  
  137. ^ McDowall, pp. 94–95
  138. ^ Compiled by members of the  
  139. ^ a b "Best viewpoints in Richmond Park". www.richmondparklondon.co.uk. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  140. ^ a b c  
  141. ^ Michael Davison. "James Batten & St Paul's view". News stories.  
  142. ^ Pollard and Crompton, p. 12
  143. ^ Christine Fleming (7 June 2012). "Tercentenary gates unveiled at Richmond Park".  
  144. ^ Pollard and Crompton, p. 32
  145. ^ "Isabella Plantation". Richmond Park.  
  146. ^ Paul A Rabbits (2014). Richmond Park: From medieval pasture to Royal park. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Amberley Publishing.  
  147. ^ McDowall, p. 131
  148. ^ a b c d McDowall, p. 122
  149. ^ "Richmond – Poet's Seat". Richard Farrington: Sculptor. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  150. ^ a b c d "Monuments in Richmond Park".  
  151. ^ "New Poet's Corner". Friends of Richmond Park newsletter: 6. Autumn 2014. 
  152. ^ Jo Scrivener (2011). "Gardens" in Guide to Richmond Park.  
  153. ^ "Reasons to be Cheerful". Sonic vista bench. Mil Stricevic. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  154. ^ "The Blockheads star Ian Dury's musical memorial repeatedly vandalised in London's Richmond Park".  
  155. ^ a b "Deer in Richmond Park".  
  156. ^ Rachel Bishop (5 November 2012). "Richmond Park deer cull begins". Wandsworth Guardian (London). Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  157. ^ Paul Brown (24 November 2013). "Specieswatch: Ixodes ricinus (tick)".  
  158. ^ Michael McCarthy (20 December 2010). "Parakeets cause problems for British wildlife".  
  159. ^ Nigel Reeve (2011). "Ecology" in Guide to Richmond Park.  
  160. ^ a b c Michael Davison. "Water in the Park" (PDF).  
  161. ^ Stephen Inwood (2008). Historic London: An Explorer's Companion.  
  162. ^ John Field (1980). Place-names of Greater London.  
  163. ^ Horace T. Martin (1892). Castorologia: Or The History and Traditions of the Canadian Beaver. W. Drysdale. p. 26.  
  164. ^ McDowall, pp. 131–132
  165. ^ "Work starts on more ponds".  
  166. ^ Michael Davison (Autumn 2014). "A new pond for the park". Friends of Richmond Park newsletter: 8. 
  167. ^ "Sir David opens Attenborough Pond in Richmond Park and launches conservation appeal for Beverley Brook". Richmond Park News.  
  168. ^ "The Hearsum Collection". Open Charities. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014.  Charity registration number 1153010
  169. ^ "Richmond Park History".  
  170. ^ a b "History Volunteers welcome new paintings of Richmond Park". FRP blog.  
  171. ^ a b c "The Heritage Pavilion Video".  
  172. ^ "Welcome to The Hearsum Collection".  
  173. ^ "Conserving Our Parks' Heritage". The Royal Parks Guild. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  174. ^ Robert Wood (Autumn 2014). "Consultation on new heritage centre". Friends of Richmond Park newsletter: 13. 
  175. ^ Richard H Rees (1972). George MacDonald. Twayne Publishers Inc. p. 153. 
  176. ^  
  177. ^  
  178. ^ Chris Cleave (2008). The Other Hand (American title Little Bee). London: Hodder & Stoughton paperback, pp. 300–333.
  179. ^ "Poems in Richmond Park". Richmond Guardian. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  180. ^  
  181. ^  
  182. ^ "The Carlile Family with Sir Justinian Isham in Richmond Park by Joan Carlile". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  183. ^ "John Lewis, Brewer of Richmond, Surrey". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  184. ^ (after Jonathan Richardson the Elder) by Joseph Allen"Sir Robert Walpole (1676–1745), 1st Earl of Orford, KG, as Ranger of Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  185. ^ by Jonathan Richardson the elder and John Wootton"Sir Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, as a Ranger of Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  186. ^ "Richmond Park". Thomas Rowlandson, 1756–1827, British. Yale Center for British Art. Retrieved 3 February 2015. 
  187. ^ Mary Pollard (19 April 2013). "History Volunteers welcome new paintings of Richmond Park". FRP blog.  
  188. ^ "Landscape: View in Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  189. ^ 1852"In Richmond Park"William Bennett: .  
  190. ^ "In Richmond Park".  
  191. ^ by Henry Moore"In Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  192. ^ "Landscape with Deer, Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  193. ^ by John William Buxton Knight"White Lodge, Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  194. ^ by Arthur George Bell"Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  195. ^ "Carfax Gallery". Artist Biographies: British and Irish Artists of the 20th Century. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 
  196. ^ a b c.1914"Spencer Gore: Richmond Park".  
  197. ^ by Spencer Gore"Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  198. ^ Helena Bonett (September 2009). "Spencer Gore 1878–1914". The Camden Town Group in Context.  
  199. ^ Robert Upstone (May 2009). c.1914"Richmond Park"Spencer Gore: . The Camden Town Group in Context.  
  200. ^ by Spencer Gore"Wood in Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  201. ^ by Alfred James Munnings"Autumn, Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  202. ^ Anna Wu (Summer 2012). "The silent traveller: Chiang Yee in Britain 1933–55". V&A Online Journal 4 (ISSN 2043-667X). 
  203. ^ by Francis Ferdinand Maurice Cook"Trees, Richmond Park, Surrey". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  204. ^ (unsigned) by Laura Knight"Richmond Park No.2". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  205. ^ by James Andrew Wykeham Simons"In Richmond Park". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  206. ^ "Kenneth Armitage: artist biography".  
  207. ^ "Kenneth Armitage – Richmond Park: Tall Figure with Jerky Arms". Government Art Collection.  
  208. ^ "Kenneth Armitage – Richmond Park: Two Trees with White Trunks". Government Art Collection.  
  209. ^ "Kenneth Armitage – Richmond Park: Five Trees, Grey Sky". Government Art Collection.  
  210. ^ "Kenneth Armitage: Richmond Oak". Government Art Collection.  
  211. ^ "Richmond Park Morning, London". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  212. ^ (panel 2 of 5) by Yvonne Fletcher"Richmond Park, London". Your paintings: Uncovering the nation's art collection.  
  213. ^ "Richmond Park, by Charles Sharland, 1911". Poster.  
  214. ^ "Richmond Park for pleasure and fresh air, by unknown artist, 1908". Poster.  
  215. ^ "Richmond Park, by unknown artist, 1910". Poster.  
  216. ^ "Richmond by Underground, by Alfred France, 1910". Poster.  
  217. ^ "Richmond Park, by Arthur G Bell, 1913". Poster.  
  218. ^ "Richmond Park; humours no. 10, by Tony Sarg, 1913". Poster.  
  219. ^ "Richmond Park by tram, by Charles Sharland, 1913". Poster.  
  220. ^ "Richmond Park, by Harold L Oakley, 1914". Poster.  
  221. ^ "Natural history of London; no. 3, herons at Richmond Park, by Edwin Noble (1916)". Poster.  
  222. ^ "Richmond Park, by Emilio Camilio Leopoldo Tafani, 1920". Poster.  
  223. ^ "Rambles in Richmond Park, by Freda Lingstrom, 1924". Poster.  
  224. ^ "Richmond Park, by Charles Paine, 1925". Poster.  
  225. ^ "Richmond Park, by Laura Knight, 1938". Poster.  
  226. ^ a b c d Sue Barber and Phillippa Heath (2009). Valerie Boyes, ed. Richmond on Screen: Feature Films Shot in the Borough.  
  227. ^ a b "The Park is the star". Richmond Park.  
  228. ^ Ross Lydall (3 February 2005). "Billy Elliot v the badgers".  
  229. ^ "Richmond Park transformed into gypsy camp as Sherlock Holmes sequel starring Robert Downey Jr. as Sherlock and Jude Law as Dr Watson is filmed".  
  230. ^ Alice Vincent (27 September 2013). "Meryl Streep in Into The Woods: first look".  
  231. ^ "Meryl Streep; Oscar Isaac; Sundance festival; National Trust film locations".  
  232. ^ "Streep praises 'magical' park".  

References

  1. ^ Later office holders were known as "Ranger". Rabbitts (pp. 22–24) lists the Rangers of Richmond Park as being: Jerome Weston, 2nd Earl of Portland (1637–49); The Royal Parks.
  2. ^ An Ordnance Survey map, published in 1949 and now held at The National Archives (UK), ref ZOS 5/5, [2] shows contemporary features in Richmond Park alongside the place names and field boundaries that existed prior to the 1637 Enclosure Act.

Notes

See also

As well as a location for films, Richmond Park is regularly featured in television programmes, corporate videos and fashion shoots. It has made an appearance on Blue Peter, Inside Out (the BBC regional current affairs programme) and BBC Springwatch.[227] In 2014 it was featured in a video commissioned by The Hearsum Collection.[171]

Richmond Park has been a location for several films and TV series:

Film

The Underground Electric Railways Company published, in 1911, a poster, Richmond Park, designed by Charles Sharland. This is at the London Transport Museum,[213] which also has: a District line poster from 1908, Richmond Park for pleasure and fresh air, by an unknown artist;[214] Richmond Park, by an unknown artist (1910);[215] Richmond by Underground, by Alfred France (1910);[216] Richmond Park, by Arthur G Bell (1913);[217] Richmond Park; humours no. 10 by German American puppeteer and illustrator Tony Sarg (1913);[218] Richmond Park by tram, by Charles Sharland (1913);[219] Richmond Park, by Harold L Oakley (1914);[220] Natural history of London; no. 3, herons at Richmond Park, by Edwin Noble (1916);[221] Richmond Park by Emilio Camilio Leopoldo Tafani (1920);[222] Rambles in Richmond Park, by Freda Lingstrom (1924);[223] Richmond Park by Charles Paine (1925);[224] and Richmond Park, a poster commissioned by London Transport in 1938 and illustrated by the artist Dame Laura Knight.[225]

Lion (seen here in May 1980) masqueraded as Thunderbolt for the film The Titfield Thunderbolt

Historic posters

Richmond Park Morning, London (2004) by Bob Rankin is at Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton,[211] which also holds a panel of five oil paintings by Yvonne Fletcher entitled Richmond Park, London (2005–06).[212]

Kenneth Armitage (1916–2002) made a series of sculptures and drawings of oak trees in Richmond Park between 1975 and 1986.[206] His collage and etching Richmond Park: Tall Figure with Jerky Arms (1981) is in the British Government Art Collection and is on display at the British Embassy in Prague.[207] The Government Art Collection also holds his Richmond Park: Two Trees with White Trunks (1975),[208] Richmond Park: Five Trees, Grey Sky (1979)[209] and his sculpture Richmond Oak (1985–86).[210]

In Richmond Park (1962) by James Andrew Wykeham Simons is at the UCL Art Museum.[205]

Richmond Park No 2 by the English Impressionist painter Laura Knight is at the Royal Academy of Arts.[204]

Trees, Richmond Park, Surrey, painted in 1938 by Francis Ferdinand Maurice Cook, is in the Manchester City Galleries' collection.[203]

Chinese artist Chiang Yee wrote and illustrated several books while living in Britain. Deer in Richmond Park is Plate V in his book The Silent Traveller in London, published in 1938.[202]

The oil painting Autumn, Richmond Park by Alfred James Munnings is at the Sir Alfred Munnings Art Museum in Colchester.[201]

Spencer Gore's painting Richmond Park, thought to have been painted in the autumn of 1913 or shortly before the artist's death in March 1914, was exhibited at the Paterson and Carfax Gallery[195] in 1920. In 1939 it was exhibited in Warsaw, Helsingfors and Stockholm by the British Council as Group of Trees.[196] It is now in the collection of the Tate Gallery under its original title but is not currently on display.[196] The painting is one of a series of landscapes painted in Richmond Park during the last months of Gore's life.[197] According to Tate curator Helena Bonett, Gore's early death from pneumonia, two months before what would have been his 36th birthday, was brought on by his painting outdoors in Richmond Park in the cold and wet winter months.[198] It is not certain where in the park the picture was made but a row of trees close to the pond near Cambrian Gate has a very close resemblance to those in the painting.[199] Another Gore painting, with the same title (Richmond Park), painted in 1914, is at the Ashmolean Museum. His painting Wood in Richmond Park is in the Birmingham Art Gallery's collection.[200]

The oil painting Richmond Park (1913) by Arthur George Bell is in the collection of the London Transport Museum.[194]

20th and 21st centuries

John Buxton Knight's White Lodge, Richmond Park, painted in 1898, is in the collection of Leeds Museums and Galleries.[193]

Landscape with Deer, Richmond Park (1875) by Alfred Dawson is in the Reading Museum's collection.[192]

The oil painting In Richmond Park (1856) by the Victorian painter Henry Moore is in the collection of the York Museums Trust.[190][191]

William Bennett's watercolour In Richmond Park, painted in 1852, is held by Tate Britain. It can be viewed, by appointment, at its Prints and Drawings Rooms.[189]

Landscape: View in Richmond Park was painted in 1850 by the English Romantic painter John Martin. It is held at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge.[188]

The Earl of Dysart's Family in Richmond Park by William Frederick Witherington (1785–1865) is in The Hearsum Collection at Pembroke Lodge.[187]

Artist and caricaturist Thomas Rowlandson (1756–1827)'s drawing Richmond Park is at the Yale Center for British Art.[186]

Richmond Park by Thomas Rowlandson

Joseph Allen's Sir Robert Walpole (1676–1745), 1st Earl of Orford, KG, as Ranger of Richmond Park (after Jonathan Richardson the Elder) is in the collection of the National Trust, and is held at Erddig, Wrexham.[184] The painting is based on a portrait with a similar title, by Jonathan Richardson the Elder and John Wootton, which is held at Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery.[185]

A portrait by T Stewart (a pupil of Sir Joshua Reynolds) in 1758 of John Lewis, Brewer of Richmond, Surrey, whose legal action forced Princess Amelia to reinstate pedestrian access to the park, is in the Richmond upon Thames Borough Art Collection. It is on display in Richmond Reference Library.[183]

18th and 19th centuries

The oil painting The Carlile Family with Sir Justinian Isham in Richmond Park is held at Lamport Hall in Northamptonshire.[182] It was painted by Joan Carlile (1600–1679) who lived at Petersham Lodge.[134]

17th century

Art

A Hind in Richmond Park by William Henry Hudson, published in 1922 and republished in 2006, is an extended natural history essay. It includes an account of his visits to Richmond Park and a particular occasion when a young girl was struck by a red deer when she tried to feed it an acorn.[181]

Non-fiction

Anthony Horowitz's 2014 novel Moriarty, about Arthur Conan Doyle's character in his Sherlock Holmes stories, includes a scene set in Richmond Park.[180]

Isabella Plantation in Richmond Park is the scene of a picnic and a child's disappearance in chapters 9 and 10 of Chris Cleave's 2008 novel The Other Hand.[178] Richmond Park features in Jacqueline Wilson's novel Lily Alone (2010) and in the poetry anthology she edited, Green Glass Beads (2011).[179]

In Regency romance Sylvester, or the Wicked Uncle (1957) there is an expedition to Richmond Park.[177]

Chapter 22 of Hurst and Blackett)[175] is entitled "Richmond Park".[176]

Fiction

Literature

The Hearsum Collection is a registered charity[168] that collects and preserves the heritage of Richmond Park. It has a collection, which was started in 1997,[169] of heritage material covering the last four centuries, with over 5000 items including antique prints, paintings,[170] maps, postcards, photographs, documents, books and press cuttings. Volunteers from the Friends of Richmond Park have been cataloguing them.[170] The Collection, which as of 2015 continues to be stored in unsatisfactory accommodation in Pembroke Lodge,[171] is overseen by volunteers and part-time staff. The trustees announced in 2014 plans for a new purpose-built heritage centre to provide full public access to the Collection.[171][172][173][174]

The Hearsum Collection
Motto Sharing the story of 400 years of Richmond Park
Formation 2013
Legal status registered charity
Headquarters Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park
Location
Chair
Daniel Hearsum
Website .uk.orghearsumcollection

The Hearsum Collection

In culture

The park's newest pond is Attenborough Pond, opened by and named after the broadcaster and naturalist Sir David Attenborough in July 2014.[166] It was created as part of the park's Ponds and Streams Conservation Programme.[167]

A separate water system for Isabella Plantation was developed in the 1950s. Water from the upper Pen Pond is pumped to Still Pond, Thomson's Pond and Peg's Pond.[160]

Most of the streams in the park drain into Beverley Brook but a spring above Dann's Pond flows to join Sudbrook (from "South brook") on the park boundary. Sudbrook flows through a small valley known as Ham Dip and has been dammed and enlarged in two places to form Ham Dip Pond and Ham Gate Pond, first mapped in 1861 and 1754 respectively. These were created for the watering of deer.[164] Both ponds underwent restoration work including de-silting, which was completed in 2013.[165] Sudbrook drains the western escarpment of the hill that, to the east, forms part of the catchment of Beverley Brook and, to the south, the Hogsmill River. Sudbrook is joined by the Latchmere Stream just beyond Ham Gate Pond. Sudbrook then flows into Sudbrook Park, Petersham. Another stream rises north of Sidmouth Wood and goes through Conduit Wood towards the park boundary near Bog Gate.[160]

Beverley Brook rises at Cuddington Recreation Park in Worcester Park[161] and enters the park (where it is followed by the Tamsin Trail and Beverley Walk) at Robin Hood Gate, creating a water feature used by deer, smaller animals and water grasses and some water lilies. Its name is derived from the former presence in the river of the European beaver (Castor fiber),[162] a species extinct in Britain since the sixteenth century.[163]

There are about 30 ponds in the park. Some – including Barn Wood Pond, Bishop's Pond, Gallows Pond, Leg of Mutton Pond, Martin's Pond and White Ash Pond – have been created to drain the land or to provide water for livestock. The Pen Ponds (which in the past were used to rear carp for food)[159] date from 1746.[59] They were formed when a trench was dug in the early 17th century to drain a boggy area; later in that century this was widened and deepened by the extraction of gravel for local building. The Ponds now take in water from streams flowing from the higher ground around them and release it to Beverley Brook. Beverley Brook and the two Pen Ponds are most visible areas of water in the park.[160]

A stream flows through the Isabella Plantation
Pen Ponds. This is the southern of the two large ponds

Ponds and streams

Richmond Park supports a large population of what are believed to be ring-necked (or rose-ringed) parakeets. These bred from birds that escaped or were freed from captivity.[158]

The park is an important refuge for other wildlife, including woodpeckers, squirrels, rabbits, snakes, frogs, toads, stag beetles and many other insects plus numerous ancient trees and varieties of fungi. It is particularly notable for its rare beetles.[9]

Originally created for deer hunting, Richmond Park now has 630 red and fallow deer[155] that roam freely within much of the park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.[156] Some deer are also killed in road accidents, through ingesting litter such as small items of plastic, or by dogs; three deer were killed by dogs in 2012.[155] Many of the deer in Richmond Park are infected with a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi which can be transmitted to humans through a tick bite causing Lyme disease.[157]

A female rose-ringed parakeet in the park

Wildlife

Nature

In 2002 a "musical bench", designed by Mil Stricevic,[153] was placed in a favoured viewing spot of rock-and-roll singer and lyricist Ian Dury (1942–2000) near Poet's Corner. On the back of the bench are the words "Reasons to be cheerful", the title of one of Dury's songs.[150] The solar powered seat was intended to allow visitors to plug in and listen to eight of his songs as well as an interview, but has been subjected to repeated vandalism.[154]

Ian Dury

Poet's Corner is linked to King Henry's Mound by The John Beer Laburnum Arch, named after one of Pembroke Lodge Gardens' former charge-hands. The arch has a display of yellow laburnum flowers in May.[152]

King Henry's Mound is inscribed with a few lines from Thomson's poem "The Seasons".[150]

In 2014 Poet's Corner was re-sited to the other side of the main path and the ode, on a regilded board, was installed in a completely new oak frame. The new Poet's Corner, funded by the Friends of Richmond Park and the Visitor Centre at Pembroke Lodge, and by a donation in memory of Wendy Vachell, also includes three curved benches made from reclaimed teak. The benches are inscribed with a couplet by the Welsh poet W. H. Davies, "A poor life this, if, full of care, we have no time to stand and stare".[151]

A wooden memorial plaque with an ode to Thomson by the writer and historian John Heneage Jesse was formerly located near Pembroke Lodge stables, where it was installed in 1851. The plaque was replaced by the Selborne Society in 1895.[150]

A bench known as "Poet's seat" is located at the north end of Pembroke Lodge Gardens, in a spot called Poet's Corner. Sculpted by Richard Farrington,[149] it was based on an idea by Jane Fowles. The seat is inscribed with lines by the poet James Thomson, who was living in Richmond at the time of his death.[150]

James Thomson

Bone Copse, which was named in 2005, was started by the Bone family in 1988 by purchasing and planting a tree from the park authorities in memory of Bessie Bone who died in that year. Trees have been added annually, and in 1994 her husband Frederick Bone also died. The annual planting has been continued by their children.

The park lost over 1000 mature trees during the Great Storm of 1987 and the Burns' Day storm of 1990. The subsequent replanting included a new plantation, Two Storms Wood, a short distance into the park from Sheen Gate. Some extremely old trees can also be seen inside this enclosure.[14]

to commemorate the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. [148] to mark the end of the Second World War. Queen Mother's Copse, a small triangular enclosure on the woodland hill halfway between Robin Hood Gate and Ham Gate, was established in 1980[148] marked the 300th anniversary of the enclosure of the park. Victory Plantation was established in 1946[148] Tercentenary Plantation, in 1937,[107] The Jubilee Plantation, created to commemorate the

[145], which have been planted next to its ponds and streams. There are also many rare and unusual trees and shrubs.camellias and azaleas evergreen it is now a major visitor attraction in its own right. It is best known for the flowering, in April and May, of its [144] Between 1819 and 1835,

The park's open slopes and woods are based on lowland acid soils. The grassland is mostly managed by grazing. The park contains numerous woods and copses, some created with donations from members of the public.

"Handkerchief" tree (Davidia involucrata) in Prince Charles' Spinney
Azaleas flowering in Isabella Plantation in springtime

Plantings and memorials

To the west of King Henry's Mound is a panorama of the Thames Valley.[139] St Paul's Cathedral, over 10 miles (16 km) to the east, can be seen through the naked eye or via a telescope that has been installed on the Mound. This vista, created soon after the cathedral was completed in 1710,[141] is protected by a "dome and a half" width of sky on either side. In 2005 the then Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, sought to overturn this protection and reduce it to "half a dome". In 2009 his successor, Boris Johnson, promised to reinstate the wider view, though also approving a development at Victoria Station which, when completed, will obscure its right-hand corner.[142] New gates − "The Way" − which can be viewed through the King Henry's Mound telescope, were installed in 2012 on the edge of Sidmouth Wood to mark the 300th anniversary of St Paul's Cathedral.[143]

King Henry's Mound, a Neolithic burial barrow,[140] is the highest point within the park and is located within the public gardens of Pembroke Lodge. At various times the mound's name has been connected with Henry VIII or with his father Henry VII.[140] But there is no evidence to support the legend that Henry VIII stood on the mound to watch for a sign from St Paul's that Anne Boleyn had been executed at the Tower and that he was then free to marry Jane Seymour.[140]

King Henry's Mound

There is a protected view of St Paul's Cathedral from King Henry's Mound, and also from Sawyer's Hill a view of central London in which the London Eye, Natwest Tower and "The Gherkin" appear to be close to one another.[139]

The protected view of St Paul's from King Henry's Mound

Viewpoints

A bandstand, similar to one in Kensington Gardens, was erected near Richmond Gate in 1931. In 1975, after many years of disuse, it was moved to Regent's Park.[138]

Professor Sir Richard Owen, the first Director of the Natural History Museum, lived at Sheen Cottage until his death in 1892.[136] The cottage was destroyed by enemy action in 1944.[137] The remains of the cottage can be seen in patches and irregularities in the wall 220 metres from Sheen Gate.[132]

Elizabeth, Countess of Dysart, and her husband Sir Lionel Tollemache, took over Petersham Lodge when they became joint keepers of Richmond Park. After Tollemache's death the Lodge and its surrounding land were leased in 1686 to Lawrence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, whose sister Anne was married to the new king, James II. It became a private park and was subsequently landscaped. By 1692 Rochester had demolished the Lodge and replaced it with a splendid new mansion in his "New Park". In 1732, a new Petersham Lodge was built to replace it after a fire.[135] This Petersham Lodge was demolished in 1835.[77]

Several buildings already existed within the park when it was created. One of these was a manor house at Petersham which was renamed Petersham Lodge. During the Commonwealth period it became accommodation for one of the park's deputy keepers, Lodowick Carlell (or Carlile), who was also a renowned playwright in his day,[133] and his wife, Joan Carlile, one of the very first women to practise painting professionally.[134]

A map by John Eyre, "Plan of His Majesty's New Park", shows a summerhouse near Richmond Gate.[61]

Sir Richard Owen and Sheen Lodge

Former buildings

There are also gate lodges at Bishops Gate, Chohole Gate, Kingston Gate, Robin Hood Gate, Roehampton Gate[130] and at Sheen Gate, which also has a bungalow (Sheen Gate Bungalow).[131] Ladderstile Cottage, at Ladderstile Gate, was built in the 1780s.[132]

Oak Lodge, near Sidmouth Wood, was built in about 1852 as a home for the park bailiff, who was responsible for repair and maintenance in the park.[129] It is used by The Royal Parks as its base for a similar function today.[129]

Other buildings

Built as a hunting lodge for the Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother), lived there in the 1920s. The Royal Ballet School (formerly Sadler's Wells Ballet) has been based since 1955[92] at White Lodge where younger ballet students continue to be trained.

White Lodge

Thatched House Lodge was the London home of U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower during the Second World War. Since 1963 it has been the residence of Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy. The residence was originally built as two houses in 1673 for two Richmond Park Keepers, as Aldridge Lodge. Enlarged in 1727, the two houses were joined and renamed Thatched House Lodge in 1771 by Sir John Soane. The gardens include an 18th-century two-room thatched summer house which gave the main house its name.

Thatched House Lodge

Pembroke Lodge and some associated houses stand in their own garden within the park. In 1847 Pembroke Lodge became the home of the then Prime Minister, Lord John Russell and was later the childhood home of his grandson, Bertrand Russell. It is now a popular restaurant with views across the Thames Valley.

Pembroke Lodge

In 2007 Princess Alexandra agreed to become Holly Lodge Centre's Royal Patron.[124] In 2011 she opened the Centre's Victorian-themed pharmacy, Mr Palmer's Chymist. This includes the original interior, artefacts and dispensing records dating from 1865, from a chemist's shop in Mortlake,[125][126] and is used for educational activities. The Centre also includes a replica Victorian kitchen, Mrs Sawyer's Victorian Kitchen, and a kitchen garden planted with varieties of vegetables used in Victorian times and herbs cultivated for their medicinal properties.[123][127]

Holly Lodge also includes the Holly Lodge Centre, an organisation which provides an opportunity for people of all ages and abilities to enjoy and learn from a series of hands-on experiences, focusing particularly on the environment and in the Victorian history and heritage of Richmond Park. The Centre, which is wheelchair-accessible throughout,[122] was opened in 1994.[109] It was founded by Mike Fitt OBE,[109] who was then The Royal Parks' Superintendent of Richmond Park and later became Deputy Chief Executive of London's Royal Parks. A registered charity,[110] the Holly Lodge Centre received the Queen's Award for Voluntary Service in 2005.[123]

In 1735, a new lodge, Cooper's Lodge, was built on the site of Hill Farm.[120] It was later known as Lucas's Lodge and as Bog Lodge.[120] Bog Lodge was renamed Holly Lodge in 1993[121] and now contains a visitors' centre (bookings only), the park's administrative headquarters and a base for the Metropolitan Police's Royal Parks Operational Command Unit.

Holly Lodge

Holly Lodge

The Freebord or "deer leap" is a strip of land 5m (16'6") wide, running around most of the perimeter of the park. Owned by the Crown, it allows access to the outside of the boundary wall for inspection and repairs. Householders whose property backs on to the park can use this land by paying an annual fee.[119]

The park includes a Grade I listed building, White Lodge. The boundary wall of the park is Grade II listed as are ten other buildings:[12][112] Ham Gate Lodge, built in 1742;[113] Holly Lodge (formerly known as Bog Lodge) and the game larder in its courtyard, built in 1735;[12][112] Pembroke Lodge; Richmond Gate and Richmond Gate Lodge, dated 1798 and designed by Sir John Soane;[114][115][116] Thatched House Lodge; and White Ash Lodge and its barns and stables, built in the 1730s or 1740s.[12][112][117][118]

Holly Lodge Centre
Motto A special place for learning
Formation 1994[109]
Legal status Registered charity[110]
Headquarters Holly Lodge
Location
Region served
Greater London and Surrey[110]
Staff
Anna King (Centre Manager);[111] Dr Pat Ealey MBE (Community Engagement Manager)[111]
Main organ
Stepping Stones
Budget
£75,000[110]
Staff
2
Volunteers
90
Website .uk.org.thehollylodgecentrewww

Buildings

Petersham Gate served the Russell School, replacing the more ornate gates to Petersham Lodge. A disused carriage gate further up the hill was probably a tradesman's entrance to the school or to the Lodge stables.[103] Bishop's Gate in Chisholm Road, previously known as the Cattle Gate, was for use by livestock allowed to pasture in the nineteenth century. It was opened for public use in 1896.[103] Kitchen Garden Gate, hidden behind Teck Plantation, is probably a nineteenth-century gate. It has never been open to the public.[107] Cambrian Gate or Cambrian Road Gate[103] was constructed during World War I for access to the newly built South Africa Military Hospital.[83][108] When the hospital was demolished in 1925, the entrance was made permanent and public as a pedestrian gate.[103]

In 1736 Bog Gate (also then known as Queen's Gate) was opened as a private entrance by which Queen Caroline could enter the park on her journeys between White Lodge and Richmond Lodge, a royal residence in Old Deer Park. Public access, 24 hours a day, was granted in 1894 and the present "cradle" gate installed.[107] The gate connects the park with East Sheen Common.

Chohole Gate served the farm that stood within the park on the site of the present Kings Farm Plantation. It is first mentioned in 1680.[103] The gate now provides access to Richmond Park Golf Course. Kingston Gate dates from about 1750. The existing gates date from 1898.[103]

Other gates

Robin Hood Gate takes its name from the nearby Robin Hood Inn (demolished in 2001) and is close to what is called[104] the Robin Hood roundabout on the A3. Widened in 1907,[103] it has been closed to motorised vehicles since a 2003 traffic reduction trial.[105] Alterations commenced in March 2013 to make the gates more suitable for pedestrian use and return some of the hard surface to parkland.[106]

When the park was enclosed in 1637 there were six gates in the boundary wall: Coombe Gate, Ham Gate, Richmond Gate, Robin Hood Gate, Roehampton Gate and Sheen Gate. Of these, Richmond Gate has the heaviest traffic. The present gates were designed by Sir John Soane[101][102] and were widened in 1896.[103] Sheen Gate was where the brewer John Lewis asserted pedestrian right of entry in 1755 after Princess Amelia had denied it. The present double gates date from 1926.[103] Coombe Gate (later known as Ladderstile Gate) provided access to the park for the parishioners of Coombe, with both a gate and a step ladder. The gate was locked in the early 1700s and bricked up in about 1735. The stepladder was reinstated after John Lewis's case in 1758 and remained in place until about 1884. The present gate dates from 1901.[103] The present wrought iron gates of Roehampton Gate were installed in 1899.[103] Ham Gate was widened in 1921, when the present wrought iron gates were installed. The chinoiserie lantern lights over the gate were installed in 1825.[103]

Richmond Gate, designed by Sir John Soane

Six original gates

Gates

Features

In 1953 President Tito of Yugoslavia stayed at White Lodge during a state visit to Britain.[100]

The first fallow deer introduced to New Zealand came from Richmond Park.[98] In 1867 and 1876 fallow deer from the park were sent there to help build up stocks.[99]

Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian general and politician, visited Lord John Russell at Pembroke Lodge in 1864,[97] as did the Shah of Persia, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar in 1873. He was the first modern Iranian monarch to visit Europe.[97] Faisal I of Iraq and Lebanese politician Salim Ali Salam were photographed visiting the park in 1925.

There is a "Duke of Brunswick and was feeling homesick, so an English-style park was laid out and a palace built for her, both with the name "Richmond".[95][96] In 1935, the palace including the entire estate was purchased by the City of Braunschweig. One condition for the purchase was that no structural changes ever be made and the park not be built on. The palace, which was rebuilt after the war, is now used for representational purposes.[96]

International connections

For the 1948 Summer Olympics, an Olympic village was built near Dann's Pond.[92] In the 2012 Summer Olympics the men's and the women's cycling road races went through the park.[93][94]

Olympics

The Petersham Hole was a sink hole caused by subsidence of a sewer which forced the total closure of the A307 road in Petersham in 1979–80. As the hole and subsequent repair work had forced a total closure of this main road between Richmond and Kingston, traffic was diverted through the park and the Richmond, Ham, and Kingston gates remained open throughout the day and night. The park road was widened at Ham Cross near Ham Gate to accommodate temporary traffic lights. About 10 deer a month were killed by traffic while the diversion was in operation.[91]

Petersham Hole

In 1938, an army camp was set up near Dann's Pond.[84] During World War II Pembroke Lodge was used as the base for "Phantom" (the GHQ Liaison Regiment).[84] The Pen Ponds were drained, in order to disguise them as a landmark,[85] and an experimental bomb disposal centre was set up at Killcat Corner, which is between Robin Hood Gate and Roehampton Gate.[86] Picture Post, on 13 December 1941, featured a photograph of an anti-aircraft gun site inside Sheen Gate.[87] The Russell School, which had been built near Petersham Gate in 1851,[88] was destroyed by enemy action in 1943[89] and Sheen Cottage a year later.[90]

The park played an important role during World War I and was used for cavalry training.[78] On 7 December 1915 English inventor Harry Grindell Matthews demonstrated, in a secret test on Pen Ponds, how selenium cells would work in a remotely controlled prototype weapon for use against German Zeppelins.[79] Reporting on this story several years later, in April 1924, The Daily Chronicle reported that the test had been carried out in the presence of Lord Balfour, Lord Fisher and a staff of experts. Its success led to Matthews receiving a payment of £25,000 from the Government the very next morning. Despite this large sum changing hands, the Admiralty never used the invention.[80] Between 1916 and 1925 the park housed a South African military war hospital, which was built between Bishop's Pond and Conduit Wood.[81][82] The hospital closed in 1921 and was demolished in 1925.[83]

In or around 1870, the Inns of Court Rifle Volunteers were using an area near Bog Gate as a drill ground.[76]

Wartime use

Between 1833 and 1842 the Petersham Lodge estate, and then part of Sudbrook Park, were incorporated into Richmond Park. Terrace Walk was created from Richmond Gate to Pembroke Lodge.[77]

Pen Ponds, a lake divided in two by a causeway, was dug in 1746 and is now a good place to see water birds.[59] John Rocque's Map of London, 1746 shows Pen Ponds for the first time, named as The Canals.[75] Between 1855 and 1861, new drainage improvements were constructed, including drinking points for deer.[76]

Improvements

Edward VII developed the park as a public amenity by opening up almost all the previously fenced woods and making public those gates that were previously private.[71] From 1915 level areas of the park were marked out for football and cricket pitches.[71] A golf course was developed on the former "Great Paddock" of Richmond Park, an area used for feeding deer for the royal hunt. The tree belt in this part of the park was supplemented by additional planting in 1936.[72] The golf course was opened in 1923 by Edward, Prince of Wales[73] (who was to become King Edward VIII and, after his abdication, Duke of Windsor). The future king had been born in the park, at White Lodge, in 1894.[74]

White Lodge from the air

Full right of public access to the park was confirmed by Act of Parliament in 1872.[70] However, people were no longer given the right to remove firewood; this is still the case and helps in preserving the park.[59]

In 1751, Princess Amelia became ranger of Richmond Park after the death of Robert Walpole. Immediately afterwards, the Princess caused major public uproar by closing the park to the public, only allowing few close friends and those with special permits to enter.[66] This continued until 1758, when a local brewer, John Lewis, took the gatekeeper, who stopped him from entering the park, to court.[67] The court ruled in favour of Lewis, citing the fact that, when Charles I enclosed the park in the 17th century, he allowed the public right of way in the park. Princess Amelia was forced to lift the restrictions.[68][69]

Public access

In 1736 the Queen's Ride was cut through existing woodland to create a grand avenue through the park.[65]

Following Charles I's execution, custodianship of the park passed to the Corporation of the City of London. It was returned to the restored monarch, Charles II, on his return to London in 1660.[64]

In 1625 Charles I brought his court to Richmond Palace to escape an outbreak of plague in London[59] and turned the area on the hill above Richmond into a park for the hunting of red and fallow deer.[59][60] It was originally referred to as the king's "New Park"[61] to distinguish it from the existing park in Richmond, which is now known as Old Deer Park. In 1637 he appointed Jerome Weston, 2nd Earl of Portland as keeper of the new park,[nb 1] ) for life, with a fee of 12 (old) pence a day, pasture for four horses, and the use of the brushwood.[62] Charles's decision, also in 1637, to enclose the land[nb 2] was not popular with the local residents, but he did allow pedestrians the right of way.[63] To this day the walls remain, although they have been partially rebuilt and reinforced.

History

The Friends of Richmond Park has been a charitable organisation since 2009.[55] It has 2200 members, is run by approximately 150 volunteers and has no staff.[55] Broadcaster and naturalist Sir David Attenborough, former Richmond Park MP Baroness Susan Kramer and children's author Dame Jacqueline Wilson are patrons of FRP.[56] The chair (in 2015) is Ron Crompton, who also chairs the Royal Parks Friends Forum.[57] The Friends Forum enables the chairs of all the Royal Parks Friends groups to meet regularly to discuss common issues and to make their views known to the chief executive of the Royal Parks, the Royal Parks Advisory Group and the Department of Culture, Media and Sport.[58]

The Friends run a visitor centre near Pembroke Lodge, organise a programme of walks[52] and education activities for young people, and produce a quarterly newsletter. The Friends have published two books, A Guide to Richmond Park and Family Trails in Richmond Park; profits from the books' sales contribute towards the Friends' conservation work.[53][54]

In 2011, the Friends successfully campaigned for the withdrawal of plans for open air screenings of films in the park.[47][48] In 2012, the Friends contributed towards the cost of a new Jubilee Pond, and launched a public appeal for a Ponds and Streams Conservation Programme in which the Friends, the Richmond Park Wildlife Group and Healthy Planet have been working with staff from The Royal Parks to restore some of the streams and ponds in the park.[49][50][51]

The Friends of Richmond Park (FRP) was founded in 1961 to protect the park. In 1960 the speed limit in the park had been raised from 20 to 30 miles an hour and there were concerns that the roads in the park would be assigned to the main highway system as had recently happened in parts of Hyde Park.[44] In 1969, plans by the then Greater London Council to assign the park's roads to the national highway were revealed by the Friends and subsequently withdrawn.[45] The speed limit was reduced to 20 miles an hour in the summer of 2004.[46]

Friends of Richmond Park
Abbreviation FRP
Motto Protecting Richmond Park's peace and natural beauty
Formation 1961
Legal status registered charity and membership organisation
Headquarters Richmond, London
Location
Membership
2200
Key people
Ron Crompton, Chair
Main organ
Friends of Richmond Park newsletter (quarterly)
Volunteers
150
Website .uk.org.frpwww
Mandarin duck in the park

Friends of Richmond Park

There are children's playgrounds at Kingston Gate and Petersham Gate.[40]

[43] from a starting point close to Bishop's Gate.[42]: The Tamsin Trail is a 7.2 mile trail around the park which is popular with runners. Members of Barnes Runners complete at least one circumnavigation of it on the first and third Sunday of every month. The Richmond Park Running

Rugby: A section of the grassland to the north of the Roehampton Gate is maintained and laid out during the winter months for rugby; there are three pitches. At weekends, this area is hired extensively to Rosslyn Park Rugby Football Club. The club buses visiting teams to and from the park pitches from its nearby clubhouse and changing rooms.[40]

Horse riding: Horses from several local stables are ridden in the park.[40]

Golf is played at Richmond Park Golf Course, accessed from Chohole Gate.

Fishing is allowed, by paid permit, on Pen Ponds from mid-June to mid-March.[40]

Cycling: Cycles are available for hire near Roehampton Gate and, at peak times, near Pembroke Lodge.[40] The Tamsin Trail (shared between pedestrians and cyclists) provides a circuit of the park and is almost entirely car-free.[41]

Sport and recreation

In July 2012 it was reported that police have been given the power to issue £50 on-the-spot fines for littering, cycling outside designated areas and for dog fouling offences.[33] In August 2012 a dog owner was ordered to pay £315 after allowing five dogs to chase ducks in the park.[34] Since 2013 commercial dog-walkers have been required to apply for licences to walk dogs in the park and are allowed to walk only four dogs at a time.[35] In September 2013 a cyclist was successfully prosecuted for speeding at 37 mph in the park.[36] In March 2015 a cycling club member was fined for speeding at 41 mph and faced disciplinary action from his cycling club, which uses the park for training.[37] In 2014 and 2015 two men were prosecuted for picking mushrooms in the park.[38][39]

A mugging at gunpoint in 1854 reputedly led to the establishment of a park police force.[30] Until 2005 the park was policed by the separate Royal Parks Constabulary but that has now been subsumed into the Royal Parks Operational Command Unit of the Metropolitan Police.[31] The mounted police have been replaced by a patrol team in a four-wheel drive vehicle. In 2015 the Friends of Richmond Park expressed concern about plans to cut the numbers of police in the park to half the level that they were ten years previously, despite an increase in visitor numbers and in incidents of crime.[32]

Law enforcement

As the park is a national nature reserve and a Site of Special Scientific Interest, all dog owners are required to keep their dogs under control while in the park. This includes not allowing their dog to disturb other park users or disrupt wildlife. In 2009, after some incidents leading to the death of wildfowl, the park's dogs on leads policy was extended. Park users are said to believe that the deer are feeling increasingly threatened by the growing number of dogs using the park[27] and Royal Parks advises against walking dogs in the park during the deer's birthing season.[28][29]

The park has designated bridleways and cycle paths. These are shown on maps[23] and noticeboards displayed near the main entrances, along with other regulations that govern use of the park. The bridleways are special in that they are for horses (and their riders) only and not open to other users like normal bridleways. Cycling is allowed only on main roads and on the Tamsin Trail (the shared-use pedestrian cycle path that runs close to the park's perimeter).[26]

The Beverley Brook Walk runs through the park between Roehampton Gate and Robin Hood Gate. The Capital Ring walking route passes through the park from Robin Hood Gate to Petersham Gate. The Thames Cycle Route runs across the park from Ham Gate to Roehampton Gate. London Cycle Network route no. 3 goes through the park.[12]

The gates open to motor traffic are: Sheen Gate, Richmond Gate, Ham Gate, Kingston Gate, Roehampton Gate and (for access to Richmond Park Golf Course only) Chohole Gate.[23][24] There is pedestrian and bicycle access to the park 24 hours a day except during the deer cull in February and November when the pedestrian gates are closed between 8:00 pm and 7:30 am.[25]

The shared use cycle/footpath, between Roehampton Gate and Sheen Gate, crosses Beverley Brook amid willows

From Easter until the end of August 2015, a free bus service runs on Wednesdays, stopping at the main car parks and the gate at Isabella Plantation nearest Peg's Pond.[22]

Richmond Park is enclosed by a high wall with several gates. The gates either allow pedestrian and bicycle access only, or allow bicycle, pedestrian and other vehicle access. The gates for motor vehicle access are open only during daylight hours, and the speed limit is 20 mph. Apart from taxis, no commercial vehicles are allowed unless they are being used to transact business with residents of the park.[21]

Access

[20][19][17] and to make a joint response. Although welcoming the principles of the new governance arrangements, the forum (in 2011) and the Friends of Richmond Park (in 2012) have expressed concerns about the composition of the new board.[18][17] The forum was formed in September 2010 to consider proposals to bring Richmond Park and Bushy Park – and London's other royal parks – under the control of the Mayor of London through a new Royal Parks Board[17]