Sex steroid

Sex steroid

Sex steroids, also known as gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.[1] Their effects are mediated by slow genomic mechanisms through nuclear receptors as well as by fast nongenomic mechanisms through membrane-associated receptors and signaling cascades.[2] The term sex hormone is nearly always synonymous with sex steroid. The non-steroid hormones luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone are usually not regarded as sex hormones, although they play major sex-related roles.

Contents

  • Production 1
  • Synthetic sex steroids 2
  • Types 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Production

Natural sex steroids are made by the gonads (ovaries or testes),[3] by adrenal glands, or by conversion from other sex steroids in other tissue such as liver or fat.[4]

Synthetic sex steroids

There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as

External links

  1. ^ Guerriero, G (April 2009). "Vertebrate sex steroid receptors: evolution, ligands, and neurodistribution.". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1163: 154–68.  
  2. ^ Thakur, MK; Paramanik, V (2009). "Role of steroid hormone coregulators in health and disease". Hormone research 71 (4): 194–200.  
  3. ^ Brook, CG (1999). "Mechanism of puberty". Hormone research. 51 Suppl 3: 52–4.  
  4. ^ Catherine Panter-Brick, Agustín Fuentes. "Glossary". Health, Risk, and Adversity - Volume 2 of Studies of the Biosocial Society. Berghahn Books, 2011. p. 280. 
  5. ^ Copland, JA; Sheffield-Moore, M; Koldzic-Zivanovic, N; Gentry, S; Lamprou, G; Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou, F; Zoumpourlis, V; Urban, RJ; Vlahopoulos, SA (June 2009). "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue-specific intervention possible?". BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology 31 (6): 629–41.  
  6. ^ ElAttar, TM; Hugoson, A (1974). "Comparative metabolism of female sex steroids in normal and chronically inflamed gingiva of the dog". Journal of periodontal research 9 (5): 284–9.  

References

See also

Sex steroids include:

In many contexts, the two main classes of sex steroids are androgens and estrogens, of which the most important human derivatives are testosterone and estradiol, respectively. Other contexts will include progestogens as a third class of sex steroids, distinct from androgens and estrogens. Progesterone is the most important and only naturally-occurring human progestogen. In general, androgens are considered "male sex hormones", since they have masculinizing effects, while estrogens and progestogens are considered "female sex hormones"[6] although all types are present in each sex, albeit at different levels.

Types

[5]