Soyuz TM-11

Soyuz TM-11

Soyuz TM-11
Mission duration 175 days, 1 hour, 50 minutes, 41 seconds
Orbits completed ~2,735
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Soyuz-TM
Manufacturer NPO Energia
Launch mass 7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)
Crew size 3
Members Viktor Afanasyev
Musa Manarov
Launching Toyohiro Akiyama
Landing Helen Sharman
Callsign Дербе́нт (Derbent)
Start of mission
Launch date December 2, 1990, 08:13:32 (1990-12-02T08:13:32Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U2
End of mission
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Landing site near Dzhezkazgan
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 367 kilometres (228 mi)
Apogee 400 kilometres (250 mi)
Inclination 51.6 degrees
Period 92.2 minutes
Docking with Mir

Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
← Soyuz TM-10 Soyuz TM-12

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi- meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

Soyuz TM-11 was the eleventh expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.[1]


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander  Viktor Afanasyev
First spaceflight
Flight Engineer  Musa Manarov
Second spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut  Toyohiro Akiyama (Reporter)
First spaceflight
 Helen Sharman
First spaceflight
Project Juno

Mission highlights

Soyuz TM-11 was launched the same day as STS-35.[2]

11th expedition to Mir. Toyohiro Akiyama was a reporter/space tourist for a Japanese television network.

Spent 175 days docked to Mir. Its launch shroud and Soyuz booster were painted with the Japanese flag and advertisements. A camera inside the descent module filmed the cosmonauts during ascent for Akiyama’s network.

Viktor Afanaseyev, Musa Manarov (on his second Mir visit), and Japanese television journalist Toyohiro Akiyama were welcomed aboard Mir by Soviet cosmonauts. Akiyama’s network, the Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS), paid for the flight. The Soviets called this their first commercial spaceflight and claimed to have earned $14 million. The journalist was scheduled to make one 10-min TV broadcast and two 20-min radio broadcasts each day. Electrical power and video and TV system incompatibilities forced the Japanese to make extensive use of converters. His equipment, which weighed about 170 kg, was delivered by Progress-M spacecraft and set up in advance by Manakov and Strekalov. On December 5 Akiyama’s couch was transferred to Soyuz-TM 10. On December 8 Manakov and Strekalov commenced loading Soyuz-TM 10’s descent module with film and experiment results. TBS broadcast Akiyama’s landing live from Kazakhstan.


  1. ^ The mission report is available here:
  2. ^ The mission report is available here: