Tōkaidō Main Line
|Tōkaidō Main Line|
An E233 series EMU on the Tōkaidō Main Line, January 2012
|Locale||Kantō, Tōkai, Kansai regions|
|Stations||166 (passenger only)|
|Track length||713.6 km (443.4 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)|
|Electrification||1,500 V DC overhead catenary|
|Operating speed||130 km/h (80 mph)|
The Tōkaidō Main Line (東海道本線 Tōkaidō-honsen) is a major Japanese railway line of the Japan Railways Group (JR Group) network, connecting Tokyo and Kōbe stations. It is 589.5 km (366.3 mi) long, not counting its many freight feeder lines around the major cities. The high-speed Tokaido Shinkansen largely parallels the line.
The term "Tōkaidō Main Line" is largely a holdover from pre-Shinkansen days; now various portions of the line have different names which are officially used by JR East, JR Central, and JR West. Today, there are no passenger trains that operate over the entire length of the line (other than certain overnight services; see below), so longer intercity trips require several transfers along the way.
The Tokaido Main Line is owned and operated by three JR companies:
- East Japan Railway Company (JR East) (Tokyo - Atami)
- Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central) (Atami - Maibara)
- West Japan Railway Company (JR West) (Maibara - Kōbe)
- Basic data 1
Station list 2
- JR East 2.1
JR Central 2.2
Branch lines 2.2.1
- Mino-Akasaka Branch Line 184.108.40.206
- Tarui Branch Line 220.127.116.11
- Branch lines 2.2.1
JR West 2.3
- Biwako Line 2.3.1
- JR Kyoto Line 2.3.2
- JR Kobe Line 2.3.3
Limited express services 3
- Daytime trains 3.1
- Overnight trains 3.2
- Discontinued trains 3.3
Rolling stock for local and rapid services 4
- JR East 4.1
- JR Central 4.2
- JR West 4.3
- Former rolling stock 4.4
- Former connecting lines 5.1
- References 6
- External links 7
Total distance: 713.6 km (443.4 mi) (including branch lines; Tokyo – Kōbe is 589.5 km (366.3 mi))
East Japan Railway Company (JR East) (Services and tracks)
- Tokyo – Atami: 104.6 km (65.0 mi)
- Shinagawa – Shin-Kawasaki – Tsurumi: 17.8 km (11.1 mi)
- Hamamatsuchō – Tokyo Freight Terminal – Kawasaki Freight Terminal – Hama-Kawasaki: 20.6 km (12.8 mi) (Tōkaidō Freight Line)
- Tsurumi – Hatchō-Nawate: 2.3 km (1.4 mi) (Tōkaidō Freight Line)
- Tsurumi – Higashi-Takashima – Sakuragichō: 8.5 km (5.3 mi) (Takashima Line)
- Tsurumi – Yokohama-Hazawa – Higashi-Totsuka: 16.0 km (9.9 mi) (Tōkaidō Freight Line)
Central Japan Railway Company (JR Central) (Services and tracks)
- Atami – Maibara: 341.3 km (212.1 mi) (3.3 km (2.1 mi) between Kanayama – Nagoya overlaps with Chuo Main Line)
- Ōgaki – Mino-Akasaka: 5.0 km (3.1 mi) (Mino-Akasaka branch line)
- Ōgaki – (Shin-Tarui) – Sekigahara: 13.8 km (8.6 mi) (Shin-Tarui Line)
West Japan Railway Company (JR West) (Services and tracks)
- Maibara – Kōbe: 143.6 km (89.2 mi)
- Kyōto Freight Terminal – Tambaguchi: 3.3 km (2.1 mi) (not in use by passenger trains)
- Suita – (Miyahara Rail Yard) – Amagasaki: 10.7 km (6.6 mi) (Hoppō Freight Line)
- Suita – Umeda – Fukushima: 8.5 km (5.3 mi) (Umeda Freight Line, used by Haruka limited expresses)
Japan Freight Railway Company (JR Freight) (Tracks and services)
- Sannō Signal – Nagoya-Minato: 6.2 km (3.9 mi) (Nagoya-Minato Line)
- Suita Signal – Osaka Freight Terminal: 8.7 km (5.4 mi) (Osaka Terminal Line)
Japan Freight Railway Company (JR Freight) (Services only)
- Shinagawa – Atami: 97.8 km (60.8 mi)
- Shinagawa – Shin-Tsurumi Signal: 13.9 km (8.6 mi)
- Tokyo Freight Terminal – Hama-Kawasaki: 12.9 km (8.0 mi)
- Tsurumi – Yokohama-Hazawa – Higashi-Totsuka: 16.0 km (9.9 mi)
- Tsurumi – Hatchō-Nawate: 2.3 km (1.4 mi)
- Tsurumi – Shinkō – Sakuragichō: 11.2 km (7.0 mi)
- Atami – Maibara: 341.3 km (212.1 mi)
- Minami-Arao Signal – Sekigahara: 10.7 km (6.6 mi)
- Minami-Arao Signal – Mino-Akasaka: 1.9 km (1.2 mi)
- Maibara – Kōbe: 139.0 km (86.4 mi) (via Hoppō Freight Line)
- Kyōto Freight Terminal – Tambaguchi: 3.3 km (2.1 mi)
- Suita – Umeda – Fukushima: 8.5 km (5.3 mi)
- East Japan Railway Company (JR East) (Services and tracks)
- Gauge: 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) Narrow gauge railway
Passenger: 166 (does not include Shinagawa – Shin-Kawasaki – Tsurumi section or branches other than Mino-Akasaka branch line)
- JR East: 34
- JR Central: 82
- JR West: 50
- Freight only: 14
- Passenger: 166 (does not include Shinagawa – Shin-Kawasaki – Tsurumi section or branches other than Mino-Akasaka branch line)
Four or more
- Tokyo – Odawara: 83.9 km (52.1 mi)
- Nagoya – Inazawa: 11.1 km (6.9 mi)
- Kusatsu – Kōbe: 98.1 km (61.0 mi)
- Odawara – Nagoya
- Inazawa – Kusatsu
- Shinagawa – Shin-Kawasaki – Tsurumi
- Hamamatsuchō – Tokyo Freight Terminal – Kawasaki Freight Terminal – Hama-Kawasaki
- Tsurumi – Hatchō-Nawate
- Tsurumi – Higashi-Takashima
- Tsurumi – Yokohama-Hazawa – Higashi-Totsuka
- Suita – Umeda
- Suita – (Miyahara Rail Yard) – Amagasaki
- Single-track: All other sections
- Four or more
- Electrification: 1,500 V DC (except for Sannō Signal – Nagoya-Minato)
- Railway signalling: Automatic Train Control
- Tokyo – Ōfuna, Odawara – Toyohashi: 110 km/h (68 mph)
- Ōfuna – Odawara, Toyohashi – Maibara: 120 km/h (75 mph)
- Minami-Arao Signal – Tarui – Sekigahara, Minami-Arao Signal – Mino-Akasaka: 85 km/h (53 mph)
- Maibara – Kōbe: 130 km/h (81 mph)
This section is operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East).
The Tokaido Main Line in the Greater Tokyo Area has rapid services called Rapid Acty (快速アクティー Kaisoku akutī) and Commuter Rapid (通勤快速 Tsūkin Kaisoku). It runs on dedicated tracks parallel to the Yamanote Line in central Tokyo, the Keihin-Tōhoku Line between Tokyo and Yokohama, and the Yokosuka Line between Tokyo and Ōfuna. Some Shōnan-Shinjuku Line trains share the segment south of Yokohama to Ōfuna and Odawara.
The Ueno-Tokyo Line, a JR East project, extended the services of the Utsunomiya Line, the Takasaki Line, and the Joban Line to Tokyo Station, allowing for through services to and from the Tokaido Line from March 2015.
Almost all trains along this section of the line have "Green Cars" with forward-facing seats, which can be used after paying an additional fee.
- Shōnan Liner services are special, all-reserved commuter express trains with comfortable seating. They operate from Odawara to Tokyo on weekday mornings, with a few services terminating in Shinagawa. Return services run from Tokyo to Odawara on weekday evenings. Like commuter rapid trains, Shōnan Liner services normally make no stops between Shinagawa and Fujisawa. Between Fujisawa and Odawara, varying stops are made. In addition to the standard fare, a reserved seat fee of ¥500 is required to use the Shōnan Liner.
- Keihin-Tōhoku Line stations between Tokyo and Yokohama officially are a part of the Tōkaidō Main Line. These stations are: Yūrakuchō, Hamamatsuchō, Tamachi, Ōimachi, Ōmori, Kamata, Tsurumi, Shin-Koyasu, and Higashi-Kanagawa.
- Yokosuka Line stations between Tokyo and Ōfuna officially are a part of the Tōkaidō Main Line. These stations are: Nishi-Ōi, Musashi-Kosugi, Shin-Kawasaki, Hodogaya, and Higashi-Totsuka. The route of the Yokosuka Line between Shinagawa and Tsurumi is separate from the main line and is referred to as the Hinkaku Line, on which Nishi-Ōi, Musashi-Kosugi, and Shin-Kawasaki stations are located.
|Station||Japanese||Distance (km)||Rapid Services||Home Liner||Transfers||Location|
|Kannami||函南||9.9||114.5||Kannami, Tagata District|
Izuhakone Railway Sunzu Line (some morning/evening through services)
|Yoshiwara||吉原||3.9||141.3||｜||Gakunan Railway Line|
|Kusanagi||草薙||5.2||174.2||｜||Shizuoka Railway Shizuoka-Shimizu Line|
Shizuoka Railway Shizuoka-Shimizu Line (Shin-Shizuoka)
|Kanaya||金谷||5.1||212.9||｜||Oigawa Railway Oigawa Main Line|
Tenryū Hamanako Railroad
Enshū Railway Line (Shin-Hamamatsu)
|Shinjohara||新所原||5.8||282.4||●||●||Tenryū Hamanako Railroad|
Tōkaidō Shinkansen, Iida Line
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line
Toyohashi Railway Atsumi Line (Shin-Toyohashi), Toyohashi Railroad Azumada Main Line (Ekimae)
|Gamagori||蒲郡||2.3||310.6||●||●||●||●||●||Meitetsu Gamagōri Line|
|Mikawa-Shiotsu||三河塩津||2.3||312.9||●||｜||｜||｜||｜||Meitetsu Gamagōri Line (Gamagōri-Kyōteijō-Mae)|
|Sangane||三ヶ根||2.6||315.5||●||｜||｜||｜||｜||Kōta, Nukata District|
|Okazaki||岡崎||7.4||325.9||●||●||●||●||●||Aichi Loop Line||Okazaki|
|Kariya||刈谷||1.9||341.6||●||●||●||●||●||Meitetsu Mikawa Line|
Chūō Main Line
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line
Nagoya Municipal Subway: Meijō Line (M01), Meikō Line (E01)
Tōkaidō Shinkansen, Kansai Main Line, Chūō Main Line
Kintetsu Nagoya Line (Kintetsu-Nagoya)
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line (Meitetsu-Nagoya)
Higashiyama Line (H08), Sakura-dōri Line (S02)
Aonami Line (AN01)
|Biwajima||枇杷島||4.0||370.0||｜||｜||｜||｜||｜||Tōkai Transport Service Jōhoku Line||Kiyosu|
|Owari-Ichinomiya||尾張一宮||6.0||383.1||●||●||●||●||●||Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line, Meitetsu Bisai Line (Meitetsu-Ichinomiya)||Ichinomiya|
Takayama Main Line
Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line, Meitetsu Kagamihara Line (Meitetsu Gifu)
Tōkaidō Main Line (Mino-Akasaka, Shin-Tarui branch lines)
Kintetsu Yoro Line
Tarumi Railway Tarumi Line
|Tarui||垂井||8.1||418.1||●||●||●||●||●||Tarui, Fuwa District|
|Sekigahara||関ヶ原||5.7||423.8||●||●||●||●||●||Tōkaidō Main Line (Shin-Tarui branch line)||Sekigahara, Fuwa District|
Hokuriku Main Line, Biwako Line (Tōkaidō Main Line)
Ohmi Railway Main Line
Both the Mino-Akasaka and Tarui branch lines separate from the Main Line at Minami-Arao junction (南荒尾信号場), located 3.1 km west of Ōgaki Station.
Mino-Akasaka Branch Line
|Total (from Ōgaki)|
|Ōgaki||大垣||-||0.0||Tōkaidō Main Line||Ōgaki||Gifu|
Tarui Branch Line
Between Ōgaki and Sekigahara, there is a 25 per mil grade. In 1944, a single track bypass was built to avoid this steep slope of the main line and the old westbound track was removed.
|Total (from Ōgaki)|
|Ōgaki||大垣||-||0.0||Tōkaidō Main Line||Ōgaki||Gifu|
|Tarui||垂井||8.1||8.1||Tarui, Fuwa District|
|Sekigahara||関ヶ原||5.7||13.8||JR Central: Tōkaidō Main Line||Sekigahara|
The western part of the Tōkaidō Main Line from Maibara to Kōbe is operated by JR West and forms the main trunk of the company's Urban Network in the Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto metropolitan area. Although the line is divided into three segments, known as the Biwako Line, JR Kyoto Line, and JR Kobe Line, they are part of a single contiguous network, with many services traversing multiple sections. The Biwako Line includes a segment of the Hokuriku Main Line. Some services on the Kosei, JR Takarazuka and Gakkentoshi lines run through onto the Tōkaidō Main Line.
JR Kyoto Line
JR Kobe Line
The westernmost section between Osaka and Kōbe is part of the JR Kobe Line, which continues west to Himeji on the Sanyō Main Line. Although Kōbe is the official terminus of the Tōkaidō Main Line, most trains continue to Nishi-Akashi, Himeji and beyond.
Limited express services
In addition to standard local, rapid, and special rapid service trains, the Tōkaidō Main Line also hosts a number of limited express services.
- Biwako Express: Maibara – Osaka
- Fujikawa: Shizuoka – Fuji
- Haruka: Maibara – Kansai International Airport
- Hida: Nagoya – Gifu, Gifu – Osaka
- Odoriko: Tokyo – Atami – (Itō Line) – Itō – (Izu Kyūkō) – Shimoda; Tokyo – Mishima – (Izuhakone Railway Sunzu Line) – Shuzenji
- Super View Odoriko, Resort Odoriko, Fleur Odoriko: Tokyo – Atami – (Itō Line) – Itō – (Izu Kyūkō) – Shimoda
- Shinano: Nagoya – Osaka
- Shirasagi: Nagoya – Maibara
- Sunrise Izumo (Tokyo – Izumo via Okayama) (Operates daily)
- Sunrise Seto (Tokyo – Takamatsu) (Operates daily)
- Sunrise Yume (Tokyo – Hiroshima) (Operates seasonally)
- Moonlight Nagara (Tokyo – Ōgaki) (Operates seasonally - rapid service with reserved seats)
- Overnight limited express Sakura (Tokyo – Nagasaki (discontinued March 2005), Tokyo – Sasebo (discontinued 1999))
- Overnight limited express Izumo (Tokyo – Izumo via Tottori), discontinued March 2006
- Limited express Wide View Tōkai (Tokyo – Shizuoka), discontinued March 2007
- Overnight express Ginga (Tokyo – Osaka), discontinued March 2008
- Overnight limited express Fuji (Tokyo – Ōita), discontinued March 2009
- Overnight limited express Hayabusa (Tokyo – Kumamoto), discontinued March 2009
Rolling stock for local and rapid services
- 185 series (Tokyo – Atami, through services onto the Itō Line)
- E231-1000 series (Tokyo – Atami – Numazu, through services onto the Itō Line, through services onto the Gotemba Line)
- E233-3000 series (Tokyo – Atami)
- 117 series (Hamamatsu – Toyohashi, Kanayama – Ōgaki – Maibara)
- 211-0 series (Kakegawa – Hamamatsu – Toyohashi – Gifu – Ōgaki – Maibara)
- 211-5000 series (Atami – Toyohashi, through services onto the Gotemba Line)
- 211-6000 series (Atami – Toyohashi, through services onto the Gotemba Line, through services onto the Minobu Line)
- 311 series (Shizuoka – Kakegawa – Hamamatsu – Toyohashi – Gifu)
- 313-0 series (Hamamatsu – Toyohashi – Gifu – Ōgaki)
- 313-300 series (Hamamatsu – Toyohashi – Gifu – Ōgaki, Ōgaki – Mino-Akasaka)
- 313-2300 series (Atami – Toyohashi, through services onto the Gotemba Line, through services onto the Minobu Line)
- 313-2500 series (Atami – Toyohashi, through services onto the Gotemba Line, through services onto the Minobu Line)
- 313-2600 series (Atami – Toyohashi, through services onto the Gotemba Line, through services onto the Minobu Line)
- 313-3000 series (through services onto the Gotemba Line, through services onto the Minobu Line)
- 313-3100 series (through services onto the Gotemba Line, through services onto the Minobu Line)
- 313-5000 series (Hamamatsu – Toyohashi – Gifu – Ōgaki – Maibara)
- 373 series (Tokyo – Atami – – Shizuoka, Hamamatsu – Toyohashi, Ōgaki – Maibara)
- KiHa 75 (through services onto the Taketoyo Line)
A JR Central 313 series EMU
- 221 series (Maibara – Ōgaki)
- 223-1000 series (Maibara – Ōgaki)
- 223-2000 series (Maibara – Ōgaki)
- 223-6000 series (Maibara – Ōgaki)
- 225-0 series (Maibara – Ōgaki)
- 681 series (Nagoya – Ōgaki – Sekigahara)
Former rolling stock
- E217 series (Tokyo – Atami, March 2006 - March 2015)
- 211 series (Tokyo – Atami – Numazu, through services onto the Itō Line, 1985 - April 2012)
The Tōkaidō route takes its name from the ancient road connecting the Kansai region (Kyoto, Osaka) with the Kantō region (Tokyo, then Edo) through the Tōkai region (including Nagoya). Literally, it was the Tōkai road, or Road through Tōkai. The Tōkaidō Line does not follow the old road exactly, since the latter diverges at Nagoya toward the Mie Prefecture coastline; to follow it by train, the Kansai Main Line and Kusatsu Line would have to be followed from Nagoya to Kusatsu. The largest population centers in Japan are along this route - Tokyo, Yokohama, Nagoya, Kyoto, Osaka and Kobe. These centers have grown to occupy an ever more dominant role in the country's government, financial, manufacturing and cultural life.
Historically, one of the first priorities of Japanese railway planners was to build a line from Tokyo to the Kansai region, either following the Tokaido route or the northern Nakasendō route. This decision remained unresolved as regional needs were addressed. The first railway in Japan was the line from Shinbashi to Sakuragicho in Yokohama, which opened in 1872; another segment of today's Tokaido Main Line, between Kyoto and Kobe, opened in 1877.
In 1883, the government decided to use the Nakasendo route, and construction of several segments commenced (including the modern-day Takasaki Line). Railways were opened between Ogaki and Nagahama (1884) and between Nagoya and Kisogawa (1886) in line with the Nakasendo plan. However, by 1886, it was clear that the Tokaido route would be more practical, and so the Nakasendo plan was abandoned.
The lines between Kisogawa and Ogaki, Yokohama and Kozu, and Hamamatsu and Obu were completed in 1887, and the first line from Tokyo to Kobe was completed in 1889, when Kozu and Hamamatsu were connected through the present-day Gotemba Line corridor, and the final segments were completed between Kasumigahara and Otsu. At the time, there was one Tokyo-Kobe train in each direction per day, taking over 20 hours each way.
The "Tokaido Line" name was formally adopted in 1895. In October 1895, following the Sino-Japanese War, through service to the Sanyo Railway (now Sanyo Main Line) began. Express service between Tokyo and Kobe began in 1896, sleeper service in 1900, and dining car service in 1901.
In 1906, all privately run main lines were nationalized under the newly created Japan Imperial Railway, which, at the time had a network of just over 7000 km. Automatic couplers were introduced on all freight wagons in 1926. In 1930, the first Tsubame ("swallow") express was introduced, reducing the Tokyo - Kobe travel-time to nine hours - a significant reduction from the twenty hours required in 1889 and fifteen in 1903.
Infrastructure improvements included the completion of double track on this route in 1913, and the opening of the 7.8 km long Tanna Tunnel, which shortened the route by omitting a detour round the mountains between Atami and Numazu. This was the last major change to the alignment of the route.
By the early 1950s the Tōkaidō Line had become the main transportation artery of Japan. Although it was only 3 percent of the railway system by length, it carried 24 percent of JNR's passenger traffic and 23 percent of its freight, and the rate of growth was higher than any other line in the country. By 1956 electrification was completed along the Tokyo-Osaka section and with the introduction of new Kodama trains, travel time was reduced to six and a half hours. The line became so popular that tickets regularly sold out within ten minutes of being put on sale, one month in advance of the travel date.
The capacity constraints on the Tokaido Main Line had been clear prior to World War II, and work started on a new 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge "bullet train" line in 1940. Intercity passenger traffic between Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka largely transferred to the Tōkaidō Shinkansen after it was completed in 1964. Since then, the Tokaido Main Line has been used as a commuter and freight line, serving a very small number of long-distance passenger trains (mainly overnight and sleeper services).
Following the Hanshin earthquake on January 17, 1995, the line was shut down between Takatsuki and Kobe, with certain segments remaining impassable until April 1.
Former connecting lines
- Ninomiya Station: The Shonan Horse-drawn Tramway opened a 10 km line to Hatano in 1906 to haul tobacco. Steam locomotion was introduced in 1913. Passenger services ceased in 1933, and the line closed in 1935.
- Odawara Station: The Japanese Tobacco Company operated an approximately 1 km line to its factory, electrified at 1,500 V DC, between 1950 and 1984. The line was also serviced by the adjoining Odakyu Odawara Line from its Ashigara station.
- Atami Station: In 1895, a 10 km 610 mm (2 ft) gauge handcar line opened to Yoshihama, and was extended 4 km to Odawara the following year. In 1907, the line was converted to 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge and steam locomotives were introduced. The line closed in 1923 as a result of the Great Kanto earthquake.
- Numazu Station: The Shuname Railway opened a 7 km line to Mishima-Tamachi on the Izuhakone Railway Sunzu Line in 1906. In 1915, the line was truncated 1 km to connect at Mishima-Hirokoji, and the line was electrified at 600 V DC in 1919. The line closed in 1961 following the destruction of the Kisegawa bridge during a flood.
- Yoshiwara Station: The Fuji Horse Tramway (富士馬車鉄道 Fuji Basha Tetsudō) opened a 610 mm (2 ft) gauge line to Ōmiya (presentday Fujinomiya) in 1890. The Fuji Minobu Railway (富士身延鉄道 Fuji Minobu Tetsudō) purchased the tramway in 1912, converted it to a 1,067 mm gauge steam railway the following year and gradually extended it (eventually becoming the Minobu Line). In 1924, the company built a new alignment which connected to Fuji station on the Tokaido main line, at which time the original section from Omiya to Yoshiwara closed.
- Shimizu Station: The JGR opened a 2 km freight-only line to Shimizu wharf in 1916. In 1944, the line was extended 6 km to Miha and passenger services were introduced. The line closed in 1984.
- Shizuoka Station: The Abe Railway opened a 9 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line from Inomiya (approximately 2 km from Shizuoka) to Ushizuma in 1914 to haul timber. Plans to extend the line to Shizuoka did not eventuate and the line closed in 1934.
The Shizuoka Electric Railway opened a 2 km line to Anzai, connecting to its Shimizu Line, electrified at 600 V DC, between 1922 and 1926. The line closed in 1962.
- Yaizu Station: A 5 km 610 mm (2 ft) handcar line operated to Fujieda between 1891 and 1900.
- Fujieda Station: The Fuji-sho Railway opened a 4 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line to Ote in 1913, and by 1926 had extended the line progressively in both directions for a length of 38 km from Jitogata to Suruga-Okabe, although in 1936 the 5 km section from Suruga-Okabe to Ote was closed. In 1943, the company merged with the Shizuoka Railway (see Fujiroi Station below), and in 1948, a 7 km line between Mitsumata and Jitogata opened, linking the two sections. This section of the combined line closed between 1964 and 1970.
- Shimada Station: The Fuji Prefectural Government opened a 3 km 610 mm (2 ft) gauge handcar line in 1898 to haul timber. In 1944, following the destruction of the nearby Tokaido Line bridge over the Oigawa, it was proposed to use the alignment of this line as a replacement, including a 930 m wooden bridge over the river. The bridge was about 25% completed when the end of the war resulted in the termination of the proposal. A diesel locomotive was introduced in 1955 to haul construction material for the construction of the adjacent national highway, and the line closed in 1959.
- Kikukawa Station: The Joto horse-drawn tramway opened a 15 km 2 ft (610 mm) gauge line to Ikeshinden in 1899. In 1923, the line was converted to 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge, and a single-cylinder diesel locomotive introduced. The line closed in 1935.
- Fukuroi Station: The Akiba horse-drawn tramway opened a 12 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line to Enshumori-Cho in 1902. In 1926, the company renamed itself the Shizuoka Electric Railway, converted the line to 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge and electrified it at 600 V DC. The line closed in 1962.
The Shizuoka Railway opened a 10 km 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line to Yokosuka in 1914, extending it 7 km to Mitsumata in 1927. The company merged with the Fuji-sho Railway in 1943 (see Fujieda Station above), and in 1948, a 7 km line between Mitsumata and Jitogata opened, linking the two sections. This section of the combined line closed between 1964 and 1967.
- Hamamatsu Station: The Dainippon Railway opened a 7 km, 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line to Kuniyoshi in 1909. In 1919, the line was acquired by the Enshu Railway Line, which closed the first 1 km of the line in 1925, so the new connecting station became Enshu-Magome. The line closed in 1937.
- Okazaki Station: The Nishio Railway opened a 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge line to Nishio in 1911, and extended it to Kira-Yoshida on the Meitetsu Gamagōri Line between 1915 and 1916. In 1926, the company merged with the Aichi Electric Railway, which between 1928 and 1929 converted the line to 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge, electrified it at 600 V DC, and connected it to the line from Shin-Anjō on the Meitetsu Nagoya Main Line at Nishioguchi. The line to Nishio closed in 1962.
A 6 km tram line connected to the Meitetsu Koromo line at Okazaki-Ida Station, which between 1929 and 1962 connected to the Meitetsu Mikawa Line at Uwagoromo, the tramway also closing in 1962.
- Owari-Ichinomiya Station: The 6 km Meitetsu line to Okoshi, electrified at 600 V DC, opened in 1924. When the voltage on the Meitetsu main line was increased to 1,500 V DC in 1952, services were suspended on this line. The substitute bus service proved so popular the line was closed rather than upgraded.
- Ogaki Station: The Seino Railway opened a 3 km line from Mino-Akasaka to Ichihashi in 1928, and operated a passenger service from 1930 to 1945.
- Nishinomiya Station: A 2 km freight-only line was opened in 1944 to connect to Mukogawa Station on the Hanshin Main Line. As the former was 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge, and the latter 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge, some tracks at Mukogawa were dual gauge. Service on the line ceased in 1958, but it was not formally closed until 1970.
- Rokkomichi Station: A 5 km line to Kobe Port opened in 1907, electrified at 1,500 V DC. Passenger services ceased in 1974, and the line closed in 2003.
- Arao Station (on the Mino Akasaka branch): A 2 km freight-only line to the Mino Okubo limestone quarry operated between 1928 and 1990.
This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese WorldHeritage.
- An Interview with the President on JR East website, retrieved 2009-05-13
- Smith, Roderick A. (2003). "The Japanese Shinkansen". The Journal of Transport History (Imperial College, London) 24/2: 22–236.
- Stations of the Tōkaidō Main Line (JR East) (Japanese)