Tahōtō

Tahōtō

Tahōtō at Ishiyama-dera, dating to 1194 and a National Treasure; distinctive features are the square base; stupa mound; mokoshi or lower 'skirt' roof; upper pyramidal roof; and sōrin or finial
A hōtō
Floorplan of the daitō at Negoro-ji; many features are shared with the tahōtō; the daitō is larger, with five bays on each side rather than three
Stupa (仏舎利塔 busshari-tō) at Ryūkō-ji, Kanagawa Prefecture; without a protective roof, the plaster weathers rapidly
Bronze sōrin or finial at Iwawaki-dera, Ōsaka Prefecture; comprising an inverted bowl, lotus petals, nine rings, flame, and jewel

A tahōtō (多宝塔 lit. many-jewelled pagoda) is a form of Japanese pagoda found primarily at Esoteric Shingon and Tendai school Buddhist temples. It is unique among pagodas because it has an even number of stories (two). (The second story has a balustrade and seems habitable, but is nonetheless inaccessible and offers no usable space.)[1] Its name alludes to Tahō Nyorai, who appears seated in a many-jewelled pagoda in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sutra.[2][3] With square lower and cylindrical upper parts, a mokoshi 'skirt roof', a pyramidal roof, and a finial, the tahōtō or the larger daitō was one of the seven halls of a Shingon temple.[4] After the Heian period the construction of pagodas in general declined, and new tahōtō became rare. Six examples, of which that at Ishiyama-dera (1194) is the earliest, have been designated National Treasures.[5] There are no examples in China, whether architectural or pictoral, of anything that resembles the tahōtō, although there is a Song dynasty textual reference to a 'tahōtō with an encircling chamber'.[6]

Contents

  • Hōtō 1
  • Daitō 2
  • Structure 3
    • Single-storey 3.1
    • Floor plan 3.2
    • Upper part 3.3
    • Finial 3.4
  • Miniature versions 4
  • Meaning 5
  • Examples 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8

Hōtō

The hōtō (宝塔) or treasure pagoda is the ancestor of the tahōtō and dates to the introduction to Japan of Shingon and Tendai Buddhism in the ninth century.[2][6] No wooden hōtō has survived, albeit modern copies do exist, and stone, bronze, or iron specimen are always miniatures comprising a foundation stone, barrel-shaped body, pyramid roof, and a finial.[2][7]

Daitō

While the tahōtō is 3x3 ken (bays), a larger 5x5 ken version exists, known as daitō (大塔) or 'large pagoda'.[4] This is the only type of tahōtō to retain the original structure with a row of pillars or a wall separating the corridor (hisashi) from the core of the structure, abolished in smaller pagodas.[7][group 1] Daitō used to be common but, of all those ever built, only a few are still extant. One is at Wakayama prefecture's Negoro-ji, another at Kongōbu-ji, again in Wakayama, another at Kirihata-dera, Tokushima prefecture, another at Narita-san in Chiba. (See the respective list entries.) Kūkai himself, founder of the Shingon school, built the celebrated daitō for Kongōbu-ji on Kōyasan; almost fifty metres high, chronicles relate that 'the mightiness of its single storey outdoes that of multi-storeyed pagodas'.[3][6][8] The specimen found at Negoro-ji (see photo above) is 30.85 meters tall and a National Treasure.

Structure

Single-storey

Japanese pagodas have an odd number of stories.[9] While the tahōto may appear to be twin-storied, complete with balustrade, the upper part is inaccessible with no usable space.[1] The lower roof, known as a mokoshi, provides shelter and the appearance of an additional storey.[6][10]

Floor plan

Raised over the kamebara or 'tortoise mound' (亀腹), the ground floor has a square plan, 3x3 ken across, with a circular core.[7][11] Inside, a room is marked out by the shitenbashira or 'four pillars of heaven' (四天柱), a reference to the Four Heavenly Kings.[1][7] The main objects of worship are often enshrined within.[7][12]

Upper part

Above is a second 'tortoise mound', in a residual reference to the stupa.[6] Since exposed plaster weathers rapidly, a natural solution was to provide it with a roof, the mokoshi.[6][13] Above again is a short, cylindrical section and a pyramidal roof, supported on four-stepped brackets.[1][14]

Finial

Like all Japanese pagodas, the tahōtō is topped by a vertical shaft known as the sōrin (相輪).[15] This comprises the base or 'dew basin'; an inverted bowl with attached lotus petals; nine rings; 'water flame'; and jewel.[15] The finial's division in sections has a symbolic meaning and its structure as a whole itself represents a pagoda.[group 2]

Miniature versions

A number of smaller versions of the tahōtō are known, of stone, bronze, iron, or wood, and similar to the hōtō.[16][17]

Meaning

A number of mandala show the Iron Stupa in southern India, where the patriarch Nāgārjuna received the Esoteric scriptures, as a single-storey pagoda with a cylindrical body, a pyramidal roof, and a spire.[6] The forms used in the tahōtō, namely the square, circle, triangle, semi-circle, and circle, may represent the Five Elements or the Five Virtues.[3][6] The egg-shaped stupa mound or aṇḍa may represent Mount Sumeru, with the finial as the axis of the world; or, by a folk interpretation, the square base may represents a folded robe, the dome an overturned begging bowl, and the spire a walking staff.[3] The tahōtō served not as a reliquary tower but often as an icon hall.[7]

Examples

Image Property Date Municipality Prefecture Comments Designation
Raigō-in tahōtō (来迎院多宝塔)[18][19] 1556 Ryūgasaki Ibaraki Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Rakuhō-ji tahōtō (楽法寺多宝塔)[20] 1684 Sakuragawa Ibaraki Prefecture 3 ken; originated in a three-storey pagoda of 1254, later ruined and rebuilt Prefectural
Banna-ji tahōtō (鑁阿寺多宝塔) 1692 Ashikaga Tochigi Prefecture 3 ken
Kanasana Jinja tahōtō (金鑽神社多宝塔)[21] 1534 Kamikawa Saitama Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Kita-in tahōtō (喜多院多宝塔)[22] 1639 Kawagoe Saitama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Nago-dera tahōtō (那古寺多宝塔)[23] 1761 Tateyama Chiba Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof Prefectural
Ishidō-ji tahōtō (石堂寺多宝塔)[24] 1548 Minamibōsō Chiba Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Narita-san daitō (新勝寺大塔) 1984 Narita Chiba Prefecture 5 ken
Gokoku-ji tahōtō (護国寺多宝塔)[25] 1938 Bunkyō Tōkyō 3 ken, tiled roof; modelled on that of Ishiyama-dera
Ikegami Honmon-ji hōtō (池上本門寺宝塔)[26] 1828 Ōta Tōkyō ICP
Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū daitō (鶴岡八幡宮大塔) Kamakura Kanagawa Prefecture 5 ken; destroyed
Nichiryūbu-ji tahōtō (日竜峯寺多宝塔)[27][28] 1275-1332 Seki Gifu Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof ICP
Kannon-ji tahōtō (観音寺多宝塔)[29][30] 1536 Nagoya Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof ICP
Shōkai-ji tahōtō (性海寺多宝塔)[31][32] 1393-1466 Inazawa Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof ICP
Mantoku-ji tahōtō (万徳寺多宝塔)[33][34] 1467-1572 Inazawa Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof ICP
Senjō-in tahōtō (泉浄院多宝塔) 1962 Inuyama Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Daiju-ji tahōtō (大樹寺多宝塔)[35][36] 1535 Okazaki Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof ICP
Chiryū Jinja tahōtō (知立神社多宝塔)[37][38] 1509 Chiryū Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Tōkannon-ji tahōtō (東観音寺多宝塔)[39][40] 1528 Toyohashi Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Mitsuzō-in tahōtō (密蔵院多宝塔)[14][41][42] 1393-1466 Kasugai Aichi Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof; dismantled for repairs in 1953, roof repairs in 1977 ICP
Ishiyama-dera tahōtō (石山寺多宝塔)[43][44][45][46] 1194 Ōtsu Shiga Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof; four painted pillars of the Kamakura period (ICP); inside are a Heian period and a Kamakura period wooden seated statue of Dainichi Nyorai, both (ICP) National Treasure
Kontai-ji tahōtō (金胎寺多宝塔)[47] 1298 Wazuka Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Jōjakō-ji tōba (常寂光寺塔婆(多宝塔))[47] 1620 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof ICP
Yoshimine-dera tahōtō (善峰寺多宝塔)[48] 1621 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof ICP
Hōtō-ji tōba (寶塔寺塔婆(多宝塔))[49] 1438 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Honpō-ji tahōtō (本法寺多宝塔)[50] 1808 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Hōrin-ji tahōtō (法輪寺多宝塔) 1942 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof
Jingo-ji tahōtō (神護寺多宝塔)[51][52] 1935 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof; inside are five Heian period wooden seated statues of Kokuzō Bosatsu (National Treasures)
Chion-in tahōtō (知恩院多宝塔) 1958 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Eikan-dō tahōtō (永観堂多宝塔)[53] 1928 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken
Daikaku-ji hōtō (大覚寺宝塔)[54] 1967 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Kurama-dera tahōtō (鞍馬寺多宝塔)[55] 1960 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken; the previous tahōtō was destroyed in the late Edo period
Sanmyō-in tahōtō (三明院多宝塔) 1961 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof
Seiryō-ji tahōtō (清凉寺多宝塔)[56] 1702 Kyōto Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Anao-ji tahōtō (穴太寺多宝塔)[57] 1804 Kameoka Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Daifukukō-ji tahōtō (大福光寺多宝塔)[14][58] 1275-1332 Kyōtamba Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof; dismantled for repairs in 1918, roof repairs in 1955 ICP
Enryū-ji tahōtō (円隆寺多宝塔)[59] 1751 Maizuru Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Chion-ji tahōtō (智恩寺多宝塔)[60] 1500 Miyazu Kyōto Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Shōman-in tōba (勝鬘院塔婆)[61] 1597 Ōsaka Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Iwawaki-dera tahōtō (岩湧寺多宝塔)[62][63] 1467-1572 Kawachinagano Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof; inside is a Heian period seated wooden statue of Dainichi Nyorai (ICP) ICP
Kongō-ji tahōtō (金剛寺多宝塔)[64] 1086-1184 Kawachinagano Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Jigen-in tahōtō (慈眼院多宝塔)[65] 1271 Izumisano Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof National Treasure
Daiitoku-ji tahōtō (大威徳寺多宝塔)[66] 1515 Kishiwada Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Katsuō-ji tahōtō (勝尾寺多宝塔)[67] 1987 Minō Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof
Hōdō-ji tahōtō (法道寺多宝塔)[14][68] 1368 Sakai Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof; dismantled for repairs in 1921, roof repairs in 1969 ICP
Eifuku-ji tahōtō (叡福寺多宝塔)[69] 1652 Taishi Ōsaka Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Sagami-ji tahōtō (酒見寺多宝塔)[70] 1662 Kasai Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, tiled lower roof, hinoki upper roof ICP
Okusan-ji tahōtō (奥山寺多宝塔)[71] 1709 Kasai Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Chōkō-ji tahōtō (奥山寺多宝塔)[71] 1710 Katō Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Tokkō-in tahōtō (徳光院多宝塔)[72] 1478 Kobe Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Gaya-in tahōtō (伽耶院多宝塔)[73] 1648 Miki Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Renge-ji tahōtō (蓮花寺多宝塔)[71] 1812 Miki Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof Prefectural
Tōkō-ji tahōtō (蓮花寺多宝塔)[71] mid-Muromachi period Miki Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, iron upper roof, tiled lower roof Prefectural
Shōkon-ji tahōtō (荘厳寺多宝塔)[71] 1715 Nishiwaki Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof Prefectural
Chōon-ji tahōtō (長遠寺多宝塔)[74] 1607 Amagasaki Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Onsen-ji tahōtō (温泉寺多宝塔) 1767 Toyooka Hyōgo Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Kichiden-ji tahōtō (吉田寺多宝塔)[75] 1463 Ikaruga Nara Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Kume-dera tahōtō (久米寺多宝塔)[76] 1615-1660 Kashihara Nara Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Chōgosonshi-ji tahōtō (朝護孫子寺多宝塔) late Edo period Heguri Nara Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Hōzan-ji tahōtō (宝山寺多宝塔) 1957 Ikoma Nara Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Tōnan-in tahōtō (東南院多宝塔)[77] early Meiji period Yoshino Nara Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof
Jison-in tahōtō (慈尊院多宝塔)[78] 1624 Kudoyama Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof Prefectural
Kōyasan Danjō Garan daitō (大塔)[3][8] 1937 Kōya Wakayama Prefecture 5 ken; five Buddhas of the Diamond Realm enshrined inside, with bodhisattva painted on the columns, in a form of mandala; the first daitō was completed in 837; it and four successors were destroyed by fire
Kongōbu-ji Saitō (金剛峯寺西塔)[8] 1834 Kōya Wakayama Prefecture 5 ken, tiled roof; five Buddhas of the Womb Realm enshrined inside
Kongōbu-ji Tōtō (金剛峯寺東塔) 1984 Kōya Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken
Kongō Sanmai-in tahōtō (金剛三昧院多宝塔)[79][80] 1223 Kōya Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof; inside are Kamakura period wooden seated statues of the Five Buddhas National Treasure
Kimii-dera tahōtō (護国院多宝塔)[81] 1449 Wakayama Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Kaizen-in tahōtō (海禅院多宝塔)[82] 1653 Wakayama Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Negoro-ji tahōtō (daitō) (根来寺多宝塔(大塔))[83] 1492-1554 Iwade Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken, hinoki roof National Treasure
Jōmyō-ji tahōtō (浄妙寺多宝塔)[14][84] 1275-1332 Arida Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof; dismantled for repairs in 1935 ICP
Chōhō-ji tahōtō (長保寺多宝塔)[14][85] 1357 Kainan Wakayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof; dismantled for repairs in 1927 National Treasure
Henshō-ji tahōtō (遍照寺多宝塔)[86] 1606 Kasaoka Okayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof ICP
Rendai-ji tahōtō (蓮台寺多宝塔)[87] 1670 Kurashiki Okayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof; rebuilt after a storm in 1843 Prefectural
Anjū-in tahōtō (安住院多宝塔)[88] 1688-1703 Okayama Okayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Shōen-ji tōba (tahōtō) (静円寺塔婆(多宝塔))[89] 1690 Setouchi Okayama Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Mitaki-dera tahōtō (三瀧寺多宝塔)[90][91] 1526 Hiroshima Hiroshima Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof; originally part of a Hachiman shrine in Wakayama Prefecture; relocated in 1951 in honour of the victims of the atomic bomb Prefectural
Itsukushima Jinja tahōtō (厳島神社多宝塔)[92][93] 1523 Hatsukaichi Hiroshima Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof ICP
Jōdo-ji tahōtō (浄土寺多宝塔)[14][94][95] 1319-28 Onomichi Hiroshima Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof; dismantled for repairs in 1935, repainted in 1973 National Treasure
Kōsan-ji tahōtō (耕三寺多宝塔)[96] 1942 Onomichi Hiroshima Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof; modelled on that of Ishiyama-dera Registered
Buttsu-ji tahōtō (佛通寺多宝塔)[97] 1927 Mihara Hiroshima Prefecture 3 ken, copper roof Registered
Akaibō tahōtō (閼伽井坊多宝塔)[98][99] 1560 Kudamatsu Yamaguchi Prefecture 3 ken, shingle roof; inscription with date found in 1928 ICP
Kirihata-ji daitō (切幡寺大塔)[4][100] 1618 Awa Tokushima Prefecture 5 ken, twin-storey, tiled roof; pillars unusually arranged in a concentric square; relocated from Sumiyoshi Taisha in Ōsaka during the Meiji period ICP
Yakuō-ji yugitō (薬王寺瑜祇塔)[101] 1963 Minami Tokushima Prefecture
Kumadani-ji tahōtō (熊谷寺多宝塔)[102] 1774 Awa Tokushima Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof Prefectural
Yoda-ji tahōtō (與田寺多宝塔) 1984 Higashikagawa Kagawa Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Ōkubo-ji tahōtō (大窪寺多宝塔) 1954 Sanuki Kagawa Prefecture 3 ken
Dōryū-ji tahōtō (道隆寺多宝塔) 1980 Tadotsu Kagawa Prefecture 3 ken, tiled roof
Yakuri-ji tahōtō (八栗寺多宝塔) 1984 Takamatsu Kagawa Prefecture 3 ken

See also

References

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