Thuluth

Thuluth

A simple Islamic prayer in the Thuluth script. Translation: the grasping of God brings the knowledge of His comfort.
Taj Mahal, monumental calligraphy by Abd ul-Haq 1609
The flag of Saudi Arabia, also in Thuluth.

Thuluth (Persian: ثلث‎‎ sols, Turkish: Sülüs, from Arabic: ثلثṯuluṯ "one-third") is a script variety of Islamic calligraphy invented by the Persian Ibn Muqlah Shirazi, which made its first appearance in the 11th century CE (fourth Hijri). The straight angular forms of Kufic were replaced in the new script by curved and oblique lines. In Thuluth, one-third of each letter slopes, from which the name (meaning "a third" in Arabic) comes. It is a large and elegant, cursive script, used in medieval times on mosque decorations. Various calligraphic styles evolved from Thuluth through slight changes of form.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Artists 2
  • Usage 3
  • Style 4
  • Scripts developed from Thuluth 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

History

Fragments of repeated Shi'i blessings (al-salam 'alayka) in Arabic directed to Husayn, the Prophet Muhammad's grandson through his son-in-law 'Ali. He is addressed by his many names and epithets, such as the "servant of God" (abd Allah), "son of the Prophet" (ibn rasul), "goodness of God" (khayrat Allah), "son of the Leader of the Faithful" (ibn amir al-mu'minin), and "son of Fatimah, the radiant" (ibn Fatimah al-zahra'). Script: Indian thuluth.
Muhammed's name with Salat phrase in Thuluth.

The greatest contributions to the evolution of the Thuluth script, occurred during Ottoman Empire in three successive steps that Ottoman Art Historians call "calligraphical revolutions":

  • The first revolution occurred in the 15th century and was initiated by the Master Calligrapher Şeyh Hamdullah.[1][2]
  • The second revolution resulted from the work of the Ottoman calligrapher Hâfız Osman in the 17th century.[3][4]
  • Finally, in the late 19th century, Mehmed Şevkî Efendi gave the script the distinctive shape it has today.[5][6][7]

Artists

The best known artist to write the Thuluth script at its zenith is said to be Mustafa Râkım Efendi (1757–1826), a painter who set a standard in Ottoman calligraphy which many believe has not been surpassed to this day.[8]

Usage

Thuluth was used to write the headings of surahs, Qur'anic chapters. Some of the oldest copies of the Qur'an were written in Thuluth. Later copies were written in a combination of Thuluth and either Naskh or Muhaqqaq. After the 15th century Naskh came to be used exclusively.

The script is used in the Flag of Saudi Arabia where its text, Shahada al Tawhid, is written in Thuluth.

Style

An important aspect of Thuluth script is the use of harakat ("hareke" in Turkish) to represent vowel sounds and of certain other stylistic marks to beautify the script. The rules governing the former are similar to the rules for any Arabic script. The stylistic marks have their own rules regarding placement and grouping which allow for great creativity as to shape and orientation. For example, one grouping technique is to separate the marks written below letters from those written above.

Scripts developed from Thuluth

Since its creation, Thuluth has given rise to a variety of scripts used in calligraphy and over time has allowed numerous modifications. Jeli Thuluth was developed for use in large panels, such as those on tombstones. Muhaqqaq script was developed by widening the horizontal sections of the letters in Thuluth. Naskh script introduced a number of modifications resulting in smaller size and greater delicacy. Tevki is a smaller version of Thuluth .

Ruq'ah was probably derived from the Thuluth and Naskh styles, the latter itself having originated from Thuluth.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hüseyin Kutlu: Hat sanatı kalemi şevk edebilmektir - Kalem Güzeli
  2. ^ hamdullah1500s
  3. ^ Kitap Sanatı
  4. ^ Ali, Wijdan. "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th Century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th Century Ottoman Art". In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, eds. M. Kiel, N. Landman, and H. Theunissen. No. 7, 1–24. Utrecht, The Netherlands, August 23–28, 1999, p. 7
  5. ^ Mehmed Şevki Efendi « Sanat Tarihi
  6. ^ http://www.bilgininadresi.net/Madde/9375/Mehmed-Şevki-Efendi-(M/1887)
  7. ^ Türk Ýslam Sanatlarý - Tezyini Sanatlar
  8. ^ Journal of Ottoman Calligraphy :: RAKIM: “Mustafa Rakim” (1757 - 1826) :: April :: 2006

External links

  • Hatvesanat.com
  • Thuluth Script
  • "Qur'anic Verses (56:77-9) on Carpet Page", dates back to the 14th century and utilizes Thuluth script, from the World Digital Library