University of Virginia

University of Virginia

University of Virginia
Established 1819
Type Public
Flagship
Endowment US$6.4 billion[1]
Budget US$2.7 billion (2013—excludes capital spending)
President Teresa A. Sullivan
Academic staff 2,102
Undergraduates 14,898[2]
Postgraduates 6,340[2]
Location Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
Campus Suburban
1,682 acres (6.81 km2)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Founder Thomas Jefferson
Colors Orange and Navy blue
         [3]
Athletics NCAA Division IACC
Sports 25 varsity teams
Nickname Cavaliers
Wahoos
Mascot Cavalier
Affiliations AAU
APLU
ORAU
URA
SURA
Universitas 21
Website Virginia.edu
UVa logo
Official name: Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville
Type: Cultural
Criteria: i, iv, vi
Designated: 1987 (11th session)
Reference No. 442
Region: Europe and North America

The University of Virginia (commonly referred to as UVA or Virginia) is a public research university located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States. The university was founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1819 and its campus has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is classified as Very High Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification and has produced the most Rhodes Scholars of any state-affiliated institution in the U.S.[4] UVA's students come from all 50 states and 147 countries,[2][5][6] and the university is known for student-run honor code and secret societies. The university also operates one branch campus in Wise, Virginia.

Since 1953, Virginia's athletic teams have competed in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) of Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Virginia Cavaliers, and they have won 23 national championships collectively.[7][8]

Contents

  • History 1
    • 1800s 1.1
    • 1900s 1.2
    • 2000s 1.3
  • Campus 2
    • Jefferson's Lawn, Rotunda, and Range 2.1
    • Libraries 2.2
    • Other areas 2.3
    • Student housing 2.4
    • Wise campus 2.5
  • Organization and administration 3
  • Academics 4
    • Admissions and financial aid 4.1
    • Rankings 4.2
  • Student life 5
    • Secret societies 5.1
    • Honor system 5.2
    • Student events 5.3
    • Transportation 5.4
  • Athletics 6
    • Rivalries 6.1
    • Fight song 6.2
  • People 7
    • Faculty 7.1
    • Alumni 7.2
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

History

Thomas Jefferson is considered the founder of the University of Virginia

1800s

In 1802, while serving as Joseph Priestley, "we have in that State, a college just well enough endowed to draw out the miserable existence to which a miserable constitution has doomed it."[10][12][13] These words would eventually ring true when William and Mary fell bankrupt after the Civil War and shut down completely in 1881, later being revived as a small teacher's college.[14] Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College in 1817. The school laid its first building's cornerstone in late 1817, and the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25, 1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison, Monroe, and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jefferson's dream to establish the university. Cocke and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction.[15] The university's first classes met on March 7, 1825.[16]

In contrast to other universities of the day, at which one could study in either medicine, law, or divinity, the first students at the University of Virginia could study in one or several of eight independent schools – medicine, law, mathematics, chemistry, ancient languages, modern languages, natural philosophy, and moral philosophy.[17] Another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. UVA had no divinity school, was established independently of any religious sect, and the Grounds were planned and centered upon a library, the Rotunda, rather than a church, distinguishing it from peer universities still primarily functioning as seminaries for one particular strain of Protestantism or another.[18] Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that "a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution", and never has there been one. There were initially two degrees awarded by the university: Graduate, to a student who had completed the courses of one school; and Doctor to a graduate in more than one school who had shown research prowess.[19]

Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. So taken with the import of what he viewed the university's foundations and potential to be, and counting it amongst his greatest accomplishments, Jefferson insisted his grave mention only his status as author of the Declaration of Independence and Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and father of the University of Virginia. Thus, he eschewed mention of his national accomplishments, such as the Louisiana Purchase, in favor of his role with the young university.

In the year of Jefferson's death, poet

  • Official website
  • Official UVa athletics website
  • Thomas Jefferson's Plan for the University of Virginia: Lessons from the Lawn - a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan

External links

  • Abernethy, Thomas Perkins (1948). Historical Sketch of the University of Virginia. Richmond: Dietz Press. 
  • Addis, Cameron (2003). Jefferson's Vision for Education, 1760–1845. New York:  
  • Barker, David Michael (2000). "Thomas Jefferson and the Founding of the University of Virginia". Ph.D. diss. University of Illinois. 
  • Boyle, Sarah Patton (1962). The Desegregated Heart: A Virginian's Stand in a Time of Transition. New York: William Morrow & Company.
  •  
  •  
  • Hein, David (2001). Noble Powell and the Episcopal Establishment in the Twentieth Century.  [Chapter two covers student and faculty life at the University of Virginia in the 1920s, when Powell was de facto chaplain to the University.]
  • Hitchcock, Susan Tyler (1999). The University of Virginia: A Pictorial History. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.  
  • Mapp, Alf J. (1991). Thomas Jefferson: Passionate Pilgrim.  
  • Waggoner, Jennings L. (2004). Jefferson and Education.  

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References

See also

[150] Many of Virginia's governors studied at the university, including Democrats

Numerous political leaders have also attended the University of Virginia, including the 28th President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson,[168] the 18th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, U.S. Senator and 1968 Presidential candidate Robert F. Kennedy[150] and his brother, Senator Ted Kennedy,[150] and Janet Napolitano.

Notable athletes who have attended or graduated from the University of Virginia include three-time NCAA Player of the Year for men's basketball Ralph Sampson,[150] pro wrestler Virgil,[159] three-time Olympic Gold Medalist for women's basketball Dawn Staley,[150] NFL Pro Bowlers Thomas Jones,[160]Ronde Barber,[150] Tiki Barber,[150] and James Farrior;[161] professional baseball players Mark Reynolds and Ryan Zimmerman,[150] Olympic medalist Wyatt Allen,[150] and Indian tennis player Somdev Devvarman.[162] The University of Virginia has been home to several top soccer players throughout the years—several former UVA players have gone on to play for the United States men's national soccer team, including Tony Meola,[163] Jeff Agoos,[164] and former USA team captains Claudio Reyna[165] and John Harkes.[166] Nikki Krzysik went on to play soccer professionally in the WPS and NWSL.[167]

[158].Michael Shure and TV political commentator [157] Vern Yip TV personality [156],Asheru winner Peabody Award hip-hop artist and [150],Stephen Malkmus artist indie rock, influential Robert Miskimon novelist [150],Frank Batten Landmark Communications founder of [150],Mansoor Ijaz, venture capitalist Paul Tudor Jones commodity trader billionaire [155],Boyd Tinsley musician [154],Barbara A. Perry, author Tom Shadyac film director [150],Tina Fey 30 Rock comedian and creator of [153],David Nolan author [150],Margaret Brennan journalist [150],Katie Couric, journalist Francis Collins National Institutes of Health Director of the [152],Breece D'J Pancake short story writer [150],Henry S. Taylor and [150]Karl Shapiro Pulitzer Prize-winning poets [151],Richard Lutz researcher deep sea vent[150],Michael D. Leinbach), NASA Launch Director [149]Jeff Wisoff and [148],Kathryn C. Thornton [147],Bill Nelson [146],Leland Melvin [145],Thomas Marshburn [144],Karl Gordon Henize [143],Patrick G. Forrester astronauts (NASA seven [142],J. Hartwell Harrison pioneer kidney transplant surgeon [141],John Backus computer scientist [140],Richard Byrd polar explorer [139]Among the individuals who have attended or graduated from the University of Virginia are the founders of
Edgar Allan Poe attended UVA for two semesters, ranking near the top of his class in French and Latin. His 13 West Range room is preserved as it would have looked in 1826.[135]

Alumni

In 2002, the Cavalier Daily student newspaper began annually posting faculty compensation online.[134]

[133] from President Obama.National Medal of Arts from President Clinton and the National Humanities Medal from 1993 to 1995, and has since received the United States Poet Laureate, professor in the English department since 1989, served as Rita Dove recipient Pulitzer Prize for poetry 1987 [132] in 2007.Juan Carlos I of Spain from King Order of Isabella the Catholic to the University of Virginia in 2007. Professor of Spanish David Gies received the New York University and Internet issues, moved from copyright law, an expert in Siva Vaidhyanathan and Law professor Media Studies from 1998 to 2009. Bond was also chosen to be the moderator of the 1998 Nobel Laureates Conferences, NAACP, a professor in the Corcoran Department of History from 1990 until his retirement in 2012, was the Chairman of the Julian Bond Civil rights activist [131] Some of the University of Virginia's faculty have become well-known national personalities during their time in

Commonwealth professor of English and former U.S. poet laureate Rita Dove receives the 2011 National Medal of Arts from President Barack Obama

Faculty were originally housed in the Academical Village among the students, serving as both instructors and advisors, continuing on to include the McCormick Road Old Dorms, though this has been phased out in favor of undergraduate student resident advisors (RAs). Several of the faculty, however, continue the university tradition of living on Grounds, either on the Lawn in the various Pavilions, or as fellows at one of three residential colleges (Brown College at Monroe Hill, Hereford College, and the International Residential College).

The university's faculty includes a Pulitzer Prize winner and former United States Poet Laureate, 25 Guggenheim fellows, 26 Fulbright fellows, six National Endowment for the Humanities fellows, two Presidential Young Investigator Award winners, three Sloan award winners, three Packard Foundation Award winners, and a winner of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[129] Physics professor James McCarthy was the lead academic liaison to the government in the establishment of SURANET, and the university has also participated in ARPANET, Abilene, Internet2, and Lambda Rail. On March 19, 1986, the University's domain name, Virginia.edu, became the first registration under the .edu top-level domain originating from the Commonwealth of Virginia.[130]

Kathryn C. Thornton, Associate Dean for Graduate Programs at the School of Engineering and Applied Science

Faculty

People

Even older, the Good Ole Song dates to 1893 and though not a fight song is the de facto alma mater. It is set to the music of Auld Lang Syne and is sung after each victory in any sport, and after each touchdown in football.

The Cavalier Song is the University of Virginia's fight song. The song was a result of a contest held in 1923 by the university. The Cavalier Song, with lyrics by Lawrence Haywood Lee, Jr., and music by Fulton Lewis, Jr., was selected as the winner.[128] Generally the second half of the song is played during sporting events. Until the 2008 football season, the entire fight song could be heard during the Cavalier Marching Band's entrance at home football games.

Fight song

The Cavaliers routed the Hokies in an all-sports challenge called the Commonwealth Challenge between 2005 and 2007: 14½ to 7½ in the first year and 14 to 8 in the second. The competition was then dropped for fear of sending a wrong message following the Virginia Tech massacre. The rivalry has been renewed and altered for 2014-15, renamed the Commonwealth Clash and sponsored by the Virginia 529 College Savings Plan.[124] The point system changes of the Clash may make it more competitive than the Challenge.[125] For instance: in the convincing victories for UVA over Virginia Tech in the Challenge, college basketball was worth 4 points and track and field was worth 2; in the Clash, basketball is reduced to 2 points and track and field is boosted to 4.[126][127]

Official ACC designated rivalry games include the Virginia-Virginia Tech rivalry and the brand new Virginia-Louisville rivalry against the Louisville Cardinals. These two rivalries are guaranteed a home-and-away game each year in all sports but football, in which there is a guaranteed annual game. Against the Virginia Tech Hokies, this is for the Commonwealth Cup, which Virginia has not seen for 14 of the past 15 years even as it has been on the winning end of the vast majority of other sports. The program is also a part of the more evenly balanced South's Oldest Rivalry against the North Carolina Tar Heels, a rivalry game which a sitting President of the United States, Calvin Coolidge, once attended in Charlottesville.

Rivalries

The most visible and widely attended sports are football, basketball, baseball, and soccer. The facilities for these sports are some of the best in the NCAA, and include Scott Stadium, John Paul Jones Arena, Davenport Field, and Klöckner Stadium. Each of these programs, except football, has seen a high standard of success in recent years, with men's basketball, baseball, and men's soccer all finishing in the top four nationally, either by final poll or post-season tournament, during the 2013-14 year.[121][122][123]

The program has won 23 team national championships, including in men's lacrosse (7), men's soccer (6), women's lacrosse (3), men's boxing (2), women's crew (2), women's cross country (2), and men's tennis (1). Twenty of those have occurred with NCAA oversight and affiliation, making Virginia the second most-winning program in the ACC.[120] Additionally, the program has won five (of the past six) indoor tennis national championships, and a track and field team title.

Virginia's athletic teams have been the Cavaliers since 1923, predating the NBA's Cleveland Cavaliers by five decades, and have competed in the Atlantic Coast Conference since 1953. The current Athletic Director of Virginia is Craig Littlepage. Since 2002, the Cavaliers have won 63 ACC titles, the most in the conference. Virginia also places highly in the yearly NACDA Directors' Cup program-wide national standings: taking third place in 2009-10, and finishing fourth in 2013-14.

The student section and Cavalier Marching Band during a Fall 2005 home football game against Duke.

Athletics

Charlottesville Union Station is located just 0.6 miles (0.97 km) from the University of Virginia, and energy efficient Amtrak passenger trains serve Charlottesville on three routes: the Cardinal (Chicago to New York City), Crescent (New Orleans to New York City), and Northeast Regional (Virginia to Boston). The long-haul Cardinal operates three times a week, while the Crescent and Northeast Regional both run daily. Charlottesville–Albemarle Airport, 8 miles (13 km) away, has nonstop flights to Chicago, New York, Atlanta, Charlotte, and Philadelphia. The larger Richmond International Airport is 77 miles (124 km) to the southeast, and the still larger Dulles International Airport is 99 miles (159 km) to the northeast. The Starlight Express offers direct express bus service from Charlottesville to New York City, and I-64 and U.S. 29, both major highways, are frequently used by vehicles.

Transportation

One of the largest events at the University of Virginia is called Springfest. It takes place every year in the spring, and features a large free concert and various inflatables and games. Another popular event is Foxfield, a steeplechase and social gathering that takes place nearby in Albemarle County in April, and which is annually attended by thousands of students from the University of Virginia and neighboring colleges.[119]

Student events

The honor system is intended to be student-run and student-administered.[114] Although Honor Committee resources have been strained by mass cheating scandals such as a case in 2001 of 122 suspected cheaters in a single course, and federal lawsuits have challenged the system, its verdicts are rarely overturned.[115][116] [117] There is only one documented case of direct U VA administration interference in an honor system proceeding: the trial (conviction) and subsequent retrial (acquittal) of Christopher Leggett after Leggett's lawyers threatened a lawsuit, described in greater detail at Honor system at the University of Virginia.[118]

The nation's first codified honor system was installed by UVA law professor The Lawn. There are three tenets to the system: students simply must not lie, cheat, or steal. It is a "single sanction system," meaning that committing any of these three offenses will result in expulsion from the university. If accused, students are tried before their peers – fellow students, never faculty, serve as counsel and jury.

Honor system

As at many universities, alcohol use is a part of the social life of many undergraduate students. Concerns particularly arose about a past trend of seniors consuming excessive alcohol during the day of the last home football game.[111] President Casteen announced a $2.5 million donation from Anheuser-Busch to fund a new UVA-based Social Norms Institute in September 2006.[112] A spokesman said: "the goal is to get students to emulate the positive behavior of the vast majority of students". On the other hand, the university was ranked first in Playboy's 2012 list of Top 10 Party Schools based on ratings of sex, sports, and nightlife.[113]

. Rugby Road in 1869. Many of these fraternities are located on Kappa Sigma in 1868, and Pi Kappa Alpha Several fraternities were later founded at UVA including [110] Student societies have existed on grounds since the early 19th Century. The

The student life building on the University of Virginia is called Newcomb Hall. It is home to the Student Activities Center (SAC) and the Media Activities Center (MAC), where student groups can get leadership consulting and use computing and copying resources, as well as several meeting rooms for student groups. Student Council, the student self-governing body, holds meetings Tuesdays at 6 p.m. in the Newcomb South Meeting Room. Student Council, or "StudCo", also holds office hours and regular committee meetings in the newly renovated Newcomb Programs and Council (PAC) Room. The PAC also houses the University Programs Council and Class Councils. Newcomb basement is home to both the office of the independent student newspaper The Declaration, The Cavalier Daily, and the Consortium of University Publications.

A number of secret societies at the university, most notably the Seven Society, Z Society, and IMP Society, have operated for decades or centuries, leaving their painted marks on university buildings. Other significant secret societies include Eli Banana, T.I.L.K.A., the Purple Shadows (who commemorate Jefferson's birthday shortly after dawn on the Lawn each April 13), The Sons of Liberty, and the 21 Society. Not all the secret societies keep their membership unknown, but even those who don't hide their identities generally keep most of their good works and activities far from the public eye.

Secret societies

Snow-covered statue of Homer in front of Old Cabell Hall. On average, snow falls 7 days yearly for a total of 16 inches.[109]

In 2005, the university was named "Hottest for Fitness" by Newsweek magazine,[106] due in part to 94% of its students using one of the four indoor athletics facilities. Particularly popular is the Aquatics and Fitness Center, situated across the street from the Alderman Dorms. The University of Virginia sent more workers to the Peace Corps in 2006[107] and 2008[108] than any other "medium-sized" university in the United States. Volunteerism at the university is centered in Madison House which offers numerous opportunities to serve others. Among the numerous programs offered are tutoring, housing improvement, and an organization called Hoos Against Hunger, which gives leftover food from restaurants to the homeless of Charlottesville, rather than allowing it to be discarded.

Student life at the University of Virginia is marked by a number of unique traditions. The campus of the university is referred to as "the Grounds". Freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors are instead called first-, second-, third-, and fourth-years in order to reflect Jefferson's belief that learning is a never-ending process, rather than one to be completed within four years. Also, students do not "graduate" from the university; instead, they "take" their degrees. Professors are traditionally addressed as "Mr." or "Ms." instead of "Doctor" (although medical doctors are the exception and are called "Doctor") in deference to Jefferson's desire to have an equality of ideas, discriminated by merit and unburdened by title.

The mark of one out of many secret societies active on Grounds at the university

Student life

The University of Virginia has been recognized for consistently having the highest African American graduation rate among national public universities.[101][102][103][104] The university had an 87% black student graduation rate as of 2006, significantly higher than national peers: 73% at UCLA, 70% at UC Berkeley, and 68% at the University of Michigan.[104] According to the Fall 2005 issue of Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, UVA "has the highest black student graduation rate of the Public Ivies" and "by far the most impressive is the University of Virginia with its high black student graduation rate and its small racial difference in graduation rates."[105]

Since the U.S. News & World Report rankings began in 1983, the University of Virginia has never dropped out of the Top 25 overall.[95] At the undergraduate level, it currently ranks tied for #23 overall and #2 among publics. Among the professional schools of UVA, as of 2014 U.S. News ranks its law school #8 overall and #1 among publics, its Darden School of Business tied for #11 overall and #2 among publics, and its medical school #26 overall and #8 among publics in the Research category.[96][97][98] The Economist ranks Darden #4 worldwide and #2 among publics.[99] At the undergraduate professional level, Bloomberg BusinessWeek ranks the McIntire School of Commerce #2 overall and #1 among publics.[100]

University rankings
National
ARWU[88] 53-64
Forbes[89] 29
U.S. News & World Report[90] 23
Washington Monthly[91] 51
Global
ARWU[92] 101-150
QS[93] 132
Times[94] 112

Rankings

UVA meets 100 percent of demonstrated need for all admitted undergraduate students, making it one of only two public universities in the U.S. to reach this level of financial aid for its students.[81][82] For 2014, the university ranked #4 overall by the Princeton Review for "Great Financial Aid".[83] In 2008 the Center for College Affordability and Productivity named UVA the top value among all national public colleges and universities; and in 2009, UVA was again named the "#1 Best Value" among public universities in the United States in a separate ranking by USA TODAY and the Princeton Review.[84][85][86] Kiplinger in 2014 ranked UVA #2 out of the top 100 best-value public colleges and universities in the nation.[87]

For the undergraduate Class of 2018, the University of Virginia received 31,042 applications, admitting 28.9 percent.[77] The university has seen steady increases in the applicant pool throughout the past decade, and the number of applications has more than doubled since the Class of 2008 received 15,094 applications.[78] Interested applicants may arrange an overnight visit through the Monroe Society, a student-run organization.[6]In 2014, 93% of admitted applicants ranked in the top 10 percent of their high school classes.[6][77] Matriculated students come from all 50 states and 147 foreign countries.[2][6] The average LSAT score was 169 at the School of Law, while at the Darden School of Business the average GMAT score was 706.[79][80]

Admissions and financial aid

The Jefferson Scholars Foundation offers four-year full-tuition scholarships based on regional, international, and at-large competitions. Students are nominated by their high schools, interviewed, then invited to weekend-long series of tests of character, aptitude, and general suitability. Approximately 3% of those nominated successfully earn the scholarship. Echols Scholars (College of Arts and Sciences) and Rodman Scholars (School of Engineering and Applied Sciences), which include 6-7% of undergraduate students, receive no financial benefits, but are entitled to special advisors, priority course registration, residence in designated dorms and fewer curricular constraints than other students.[76] The university is also a member of a consortium engaged in the construction and operation of the Large Binocular Telescope in the Mount Graham International Observatory of the Pinaleno Mountains of southeastern Arizona. It is also a member of both the Astrophysical Research Consortium, which operates telescopes at Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy which operates the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the Gemini Observatory and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The University of Virginia hosts the headquarters of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, which operates the Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia and the Very Large Array radio telescope made famous in the Carl Sagan television documentary Cosmos and film Contact. The North American Atacama Large Millimeter Array Science Center is also located at the Charlottesville NRAO site.

UVA offers 48 bachelor's degrees, 94 master's degrees, 55 doctoral degrees, 6 educational specialist degrees, and 2 first-professional degrees (Medicine and Law) to its students. It has never bestowed honorary degrees.[73][74][75]

Alderman Library

Academics

The University of Virginia is one of only two public universities in the United States that has a Triple-A credit rating from all three major credit rating agencies, along with the University of Texas at Austin.[72]

Hunter R. Rawlings III, President of the prominent Association of American Universities research group of universities to which UVA is an elected member, came to Charlottesville to make a speech to university faculty which included a statement about the proposal: "there's no possibility, as far as I can see, that any state will ever relinquish its ownership and governance of its public universities, much less of its flagship research university".[71] He encouraged university leaders to stop talking about privatization and instead push their state lawmakers to increase funding for higher education and research as a public good.[71]

Though UVA is the flagship university of Virginia, state funding has decreased in recent years.[70] Financial support from the state dropped by half from 12 percent of total revenue in 2001-02 to 6 percent in 2013-14.[70] The portion of academic revenue coming from the state fell by even more in the same period, from 22 percent to just 9 percent.[70] This nominal support from the state, contributing just $154 million of UVA's $2.6 billion budget in 2012-13, has led President Sullivan and others to contemplate the partial privatization of the University of Virginia.[71] A panel called the Public University Working Group concluded in 2013 that UVA should sever many of its ties with the Commonwealth of Virginia in order to further advance its academic standing.[71]

In 2006, then-President Casteen announced an ambitious $3 billion capital campaign to be completed by December 2011.[67] During the Great Recession, President Sullivan missed the 2011 deadline, and extended it indefinitely.[68] The $3 billion goal would be met a year and a half later, which President Sullivan announced at graduation ceremonies in May 2013.[69]

[65] Today, the Virginia endowment is the equal of Cornell's and nearly twice that of Johns Hopkins or Vanderbilt.[66].Cornell University while being roughly half that of Vanderbilt University and Johns Hopkins University The endowment has done especially well in recent decades. For instance, in 1990, the UVA endowment of less than half a billion dollars trailed a bit behind such peer universities as [65].University of Michigan as of 2013, UVA's endowment ranked 16th among all singular (non-systemwide) colleges and universities in North America, and second among publics to the billion5.2 $Managed by the University of Virginia Investment Management Company, and with

The university has several affiliated centers including the Rare Book School, headquarters of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, University of Virginia Center for Politics, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, Sorensen Institute for Political Leadership, and Miller Center of Public Affairs. The Fralin Museum of Art is dedicated to creating an environment where both the university community and the general public can study and learn from directly experiencing works of art.

Organization and administration

UVA operates one branch campus called the University of Virginia's College at Wise. The college is semi-autonomous, dedicating itself to liberal arts studies and fielding its own athletic teams. The college has 2,000 students and is located approximately 285 miles southwest of the main campus, in Wise, Virginia.

Wise campus

It is considered a great honor to be invited to live on The Lawn, and 54 fourth-year undergraduates do so each year, joining ten members of the faculty who permanently live and teach in the Pavilions there.[64] Similarly, graduate students may live on The Range.

There are three residential colleges at the university: Brown College, Hereford College, and the International Residential College. These involve an application process to live there, and are filled with both upperclass and first year students. The application process can be extremely competitive, especially for Brown.

The primary housing areas for first-year students are McCormick Road Dormitories, often called "Old Dorms," and Alderman Road Dormitories, often called "New Dorms." The New Dorms are in the process of being fully replaced with brand new dormitories that feature hall-style living arrangements with common areas and many modern amenities. Instead of being torn down and replaced like the original New Dorms, the Old Dorms will see a $105 million renovation project between 2017 and 2022.[63] They were constructed in 1950, and are also hall-style constructions but with fewer amenities. However, generally the Old Dorms are closer to the students' classes.

Fifty-four students are selected to live on The Lawn during their final year
Main article: Student housing at the University of Virginia

Student housing

The Virginia Department of Transportation maintains the roads through the university grounds as State Route 302.[62]

Billionaire Blenheim Vineyards.[60] Morven has since hosted the Morven Summer Institute, a rigrous immersion program of study in civil society, sustainability, and creativity.[61] As of 2014, the university is developing further plans for Morven and has hired an architecture firm for the nearly three thousand acre property.[61]

Away from the historic area, UVA's architecture and its allegiance to the Jeffersonian design are controversial. The 1990s saw the construction of two deeply contrasting visions: the Williams Tsien post-modernist Hereford College in 1992 and the unapologetically Jeffersonian Darden School of Business in 1996. Commentary on both was broad and partisan, as the University of Virginia School of Architecture and The New York Times lauded Hereford for its bold new lines, while some independent press and wealthy donors praised the traditional design of Darden.[57][58] The latter group appeared to have largely won the day when the South Lawn Project was designed in the early 2000s.[58][59]

Recessed windows of the monolithic Hereford College

Housing for first-year students, Brown College, the School of Engineering and Applied Science and the University of Virginia Medical School are located near the historic Lawn and Range area. The McIntire School of Commerce is situated on the actual Lawn, in Rouss Hall.

Other areas

Since 1992, the University of Virginia also hosts the Columbia University in 1983.

The University of Virginia Library System holds 5 million volumes. Its Electronic Text Center, established in 1992, has put 70,000 books online as well as 350,000 images that go with them. These e-texts are open to anyone and, as of 2002, were receiving 37,000 daily visits (compared to 6,000 daily visitors to the physical libraries).[53] Alderman Library holds the most extensive Tibetan collection in the world, and holds ten floors of book "stacks" of varying ages and historical value. The renowned Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library features one of the premier collections of American Literature in the country as well as two copies of the original printing of the Declaration of Independence. It was in this library in 2006 that Robert Stilling, an English graduate student, discovered an unpublished Robert Frost poem from 1918.[54] Clark Hall is the library for SEAS (the engineering school), and one of its notable features is the Mural Room, decorated by two three-panel murals by Allyn Cox, depicting the Moral Law and the Civil Law. The murals were finished and set in place in 1934.[55] As of 2006, the university and Google were working on the digitization of selected collections from the library system.[56]

Inside the Law Library

Libraries

The university, together with Jefferson's home at Monticello, is a World Heritage Site, one of only three modern man-made sites so listed in the U.S. with the Statue of Liberty and Independence Hall. The first collegiate World Heritage Site in the world, it was codified as such by UNESCO in 1987. The university was listed by Travel + Leisure in September 2011 as one of the most beautiful campuses in the United States and by MSN as one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world.[51][52]

In concert with the United States Bicentennial in 1976, Stanford White's changes to the Rotunda were removed and the building was returned to Jefferson's original design. Renovated according to original sketches and historical photographs, a three-story Rotunda opened on Jefferson's birthday, April 13, 1976. Queen Elizabeth II came to visit the Rotunda in that same year for the Bicentennial, and had a well-publicized stroll of The Lawn.

Inside the Dome Room

The White buildings have the effect of closing off the sweeping perspective, as originally conceived by Jefferson, down the Lawn across open countryside toward the distant mountains. The White buildings at the foot of the Lawn effectively create a huge "quadrangle", albeit one far grander than any traditional college quadrangle at the University of Cambridge or University of Oxford.

On October 27, 1895, the Rotunda burned to a shell because of an electrical fire that started in the Rotunda Annex, a long multi-story structure built in 1853 to house additional classrooms. The electrical fire was no doubt assisted by the unfortunate help of overzealous faculty member William "Reddy" Echols, who attempted to save it by throwing roughly 100 pounds (45 kg) of dynamite into the main fire in the hopes that the blast would separate the burning Annex from Jefferson's own Rotunda. His last-ditch effort ultimately failed. Perhaps ironically, one of the university's main honors student programs is named for him. University officials swiftly approached celebrity architect Stanford White to rebuild the Rotunda. White took the charge further, disregarding Jefferson's design and redesigning the Rotunda interior—making it two floors instead of three, adding three buildings to the foot of the Lawn, and designing a president's house. He did omit rebuilding the Rotunda Annex, the remnants of which were used as fill and to create part of the modern-day Rotunda's northern-facing plaza. The classes formerly occupying the Annex were moved to the South Lawn in White's new buildings.

One of the serpentine walls

Flanking both sides of the Rotunda and extending down the length of the Lawn are ten Pavilions interspersed with student rooms. Each has its own classical architectural style, as well as its own walled garden separated by Jeffersonian Serpentine walls. These walls are called "serpentine" because they run a sinusoidal course, one that lends strength to the wall and allows for the wall to be only one brick thick, one of many innovations by which Jefferson attempted to combine aesthetics with utility. Frank E. Grizzard, Jr., a former scholar at the university, has written the definitive book on the original academic buildings at the university.[50]

Most notably designed by inspiration of the Rotunda and Lawn are the expansive green spaces headed by similar buildings built at: Duke University in 1892; Johns Hopkins University in 1902; Rice University in 1910; Peabody College of Vanderbilt University in 1915; Killian Court at MIT in 1916; the Grand Auditorium of Tsinghua University built in 1917 in Beijing, China; the Sterling Quad of Yale Divinity School in 1932; and the university's own Darden School in 1996.

Elevation of The Rotunda drawn by Jefferson in 1819

Jefferson's original architectural design revolves around the Academical Village, and that name remains in use today to describe both the specific area of The Lawn, a grand, terraced green space surrounded by residential and academic buildings, the gardens, The Range, and the larger university surrounding it. The principal building of the design, The Rotunda, stands at the north end of the Lawn, and is the most recognizable symbol of the university. It is half the height and width of the Pantheon in Rome, which was the primary inspiration for the building. The Lawn and the Rotunda were the model for many similar designs of "centralized green areas" at universities across the country. The space was designed for students and professors to live in the same area. The Rotunda, which symbolized knowledge, showed hierarchy. The south end of the lawn was left open to symbolize the view of cultivated fields to the south, as reflective of Jefferson's ideal for an agrarian-focused nation.

Throughout its history, the University of Virginia has won praise for its unique Jeffersonian architecture. In January 1895, less than a year before the Great Rotunda Fire, The New York Times said that the design of the University of Virginia "was incomparably the most ambitious and monumental architectural project that had or has yet been conceived in this century."[48] In the United States Bicentennial issue of their AIA Journal, the American Institute of Architects called it "the proudest achievement of American architecture in the past 200 years."[49]

Jefferson's Lawn, Rotunda, and Range

A view down The Range
See also: The Lawn, The Rotunda, and The Range

Campus

In November 2014, the university suspended all fraternity and sorority functions for six weeks pending investigation of a report by Rolling Stone concerning the university's handling of alleged rape cases. In December 2014 the magazine apologized to "anyone who was affected," citing discrepancies in its principal source and the inability to verify some key facts.[46][47]

In the face of mounting pressure, including alumni threats to cease contributions and a mandate from then-Governor Robert McDonnell to resolve the issue or face removal of the entire Board of Visitors, the Board unanimously voted to reinstate President Sullivan.[42][43][44] In 2013 and 2014, the Board passed new bylaws that made it harder to remove a president, and considered one to make it possible to remove a rector.[45]

The university welcomed Teresa A. Sullivan as its first female president in 2010.[36] Just two years later its first woman rector, Helen Dragas, engineered a forced-resignation to remove President Sullivan from office.[37][38] The forced resignation elicited strong protests, including a faculty Senate vote of no confidence in the Board of Visitors and Rector Dragas, and demands from the student government for an explanation for Sullivan's ouster.[39][40] In addition the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools put U Va on warning that the ouster of President Sullivan put the school's accreditation at risk.[41]

Resulting in part from continual decreases in state support, the University of Virginia in 2004 became the first public university in the United States to receive more of its funding from non-tuition private sources than from the state. A Charter initiative was signed into law by then-Governor Mark Warner in 2005, through which the university has greater autonomy over its own affairs in exchange for less financial support.[34][35]

President Sullivan and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, with renovations to The Rotunda in background

2000s

The university first admitted a few selected women to graduate studies in the late 1890s and to certain programs such as nursing and education in the 1920s and 1930s.[30] In 1944, Mary Washington College in Fredericksburg, Virginia, became the Women's Undergraduate Arts and Sciences Division of the University of Virginia. With this branch campus in Fredericksburg exclusively for women, UVA maintained its main campus in Charlottesville as near-exclusively for men, until a civil rights lawsuit of the 1960s forced it to commingle the sexes.[31] In 1970, the Charlottesville campus became fully co-educational, and in 1972 Mary Washington became an independent state university.[32] When the first female class arrived, 450 undergraduate women entered UVA, comprising 39 percent of undergraduates, while the number of men admitted remained constant. By 1999, women made up a 52 percent majority of the total student body.[30][33]

The University of Virginia began the process of integration even before the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision mandated school desegregation for all grade levels, when Gregory Swanson sued to gain entrance into the university's law school in 1950.[29] Following his successful lawsuit, a handful of black graduate and professional students were admitted during the 1950s, though no black undergraduates were admitted until 1955, and UVA did not fully integrate until the 1960s.[29]

As memorialized in the Andrew Carnegie School of Engineering, the James Madison School of Law, the James Monroe School of International Law, the James Wilson School of Political Economy, the Edgar Allan Poe School of English and the Walter Reed School of Pathology.[19] The honorific historical names for these departments are no longer used. To improve higher education in the impoverished southwest region of its state, the University of Virginia established its first and only branch campus at Wise, Virginia, in 1954. Originally a junior college, the University of Virginia's College at Wise is a four-year liberal arts college and currently enrolls 2,000 students, overwhelmingly from that region.

, is still the longest-tenured president of the university. University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Alderman Library was named in his honor in 1938. Alderman, who seven years earlier had died in office en route to giving a public speech at the Great Depression Perhaps his greatest ambition was the funding and construction of a library on a scale of millions of books, much larger than the Rotunda could bear. Delayed by the [28] Alderman would stay twenty-seven years, and became known as a prolific fund-raiser, a well-known orator, and a close adviser to U.S. President and UVA alumnus

Jefferson had originally decided that the University of Virginia would have no president. Rather, this power was to be shared by a rector and a Board of Visitors. But as the 19th century waned, it became obvious this cumbersome arrangement was incapable of adequately handling the many administrative and fundraising tasks of the growing university.[26] Edwin Alderman, who had only recently moved from his post as president of UNC-Chapel Hill since 1896 to become president of Tulane University in 1900, accepted an offer as president of the University of Virginia in 1904. His appointment was not without controversy, and national media such as Popular Science lamented the end of one of the things that made UVA unique among universities.[27]

Edwin Alderman was UVA's first president between 1904 and 1931, and instituted many reforms toward modernization

1900s

Thanks to a grant from the Commonwealth of Virginia, tuition became free for all Virginians in 1875.[25] During this period the University of Virginia remained unique in that it had no president and mandated no core curriculum from its students, who often studied in and took degrees from more than one school.[25] However, the university was also experiencing growing pains. As the original Rotunda caught fire and burned to the ground in 1895, there would soon be sweeping change afoot.

ranger unit, had also been a UVA student. 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry, the infamous "Gray Ghost" and commander of the lightning-fast John S. Mosby [24] alone, including four major-generals, twenty-one brigadier-generals, and sixty-seven colonels from ten different states.Confederate Army UVA produced 1,481 officers in the [24] camped on the Lawn and damaged many of the Pavilions, Custer's men left four days later without bloodshed and the university was able to return to its educational mission. However, an extremely high number of officers of both Confederacy and Union were alumni.Union troops Though [23] Unlike the vast majority of peer colleges in the South, the university was kept open throughout the

opened in 1836, making UVA the first comprehensive university to open an engineering school. School of Engineering and Applied Science He left because of financial difficulties. The [21]