Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Vasoactive intestinal peptide

Vasoactive intestinal peptide
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; PHM27
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Vasoactive intestinal peptide also known as the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP is a peptide hormone containing 28 amino acid residues. VIP is a neuropeptide that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein-coupled receptors.[1] VIP is produced in many tissues of vertebrates including the gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain.[2][3] VIP stimulates contractility in the heart, causes vasodilation, increases glycogenolysis, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder. In humans, the vasoactive intestinal peptide is encoded by the VIP gene.[4]

VIP has a half-life (t½) in the blood of about two minutes.


  • Function 1
  • Pathology 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6


VIP has an effect on several tissues:

  • With respect to the [7]
  • It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves. One region of the brain includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the location of the 'master circadian pacemaker'. The SCN coordinates daily timekeeping in the body and VIP plays a key role in communication between individual brain cells within this region. Further, VIP is also involved in synchronising the timing of SCN function with the environmental light-dark cycle. Combined, these roles in the SCN make VIP a crucial component of the mammalian circadian timekeeping machinery.
  • VIP provokes vaginal lubrication in normal women, doubling the total volume of lubrication produced.[10]


VIP is overproduced in VIPoma.[5] Can be associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (Pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic tumors). Symptoms are typically:

  • Profuse non-bloody/non-mucoid diarrhea (3L+) causing dehydration and the associated electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis.
  • Lethargy and exhaustion may ensue

See also


  1. ^ Umetsu Y, Tenno T, Goda N, Shirakawa M, Ikegami T, Hiroaki H (May 2011). "Structural difference of vasoactive intestinal peptide in two distinct membrane-mimicking environments". Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1814 (5): 724–30.  
  2. ^ Fahrenkrug J, Emson PC (Sep 1982). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide: functional aspects". British Medical Bulletin 38 (3): 265–70.  
  3. ^ Said SI (Apr 1986). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 9 (2): 191–200.  
  4. ^ Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, Persson H, Schalling M, Hökfelt T, Magnusson G (Jan 1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84 (2): 605–9.  
  5. ^ a b c Bowen R (1999-01-24). "Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide". Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System: Gastrointestinal Hormones. Colorado State University. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  6. ^ "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide".  
  7. ^ Bergman RA, Afifi AK, Heidger PM. "Plate 6.111 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)". Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 6 - Nervous Tissue. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  8. ^ Sanders MJ, Amirian DA, Ayalon A, Soll AH (Nov 1983). "Regulation of pepsinogen release from canine chief cells in primary monolayer culture". The American Journal of Physiology 245 (5 Pt 1): G641–6.  
  9. ^ Kulick RS, Chaiseha Y, Kang SW, Rozenboim I, El Halawani ME (Jul 2005). "The relative importance of vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine as physiological regulators of prolactin in the domestic turkey". General and Comparative Endocrinology 142 (3): 267–73.  
  10. ^ Ottesen B, Pedersen B, Nielsen J, Dalgaard D, Wagner G, Fahrenkrug J (1987). "Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) provokes vaginal lubrication in normal women". Peptides 8 (5): 797–800.  

Further reading

  • Fahrenkrug J (2001). "Gut/brain peptides in the genital tract: VIP and PACAP". Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum 234: 35–9.  
  • Delgado M, Pozo D, Ganea D (Jun 2004). "The significance of vasoactive intestinal peptide in immunomodulation". Pharmacological Reviews 56 (2): 249–90.  
  • Conconi MT, Spinazzi R, Nussdorfer GG (2006). "Endogenous ligands of PACAP/VIP receptors in the autocrine-paracrine regulation of the adrenal gland". International Review of Cytology 249: 1–51.  
  • Hill JM (2007). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide in neurodevelopmental disorders: therapeutic potential". Current Pharmaceutical Design 13 (11): 1079–89.  
  • Gonzalez-Rey E, Varela N, Chorny A, Delgado M (2007). "Therapeutical approaches of vasoactive intestinal peptide as a pleiotropic immunomodulator". Current Pharmaceutical Design 13 (11): 1113–39.  
  • "[Quaternary structure of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthetase]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (in Russian) 222 (4): 997–1000. Jun 1975.  
  • Kitamura K, Kangawa K, Kawamoto M, Ichiki Y, Matsuo H, Eto T (May 1992). "Isolation and characterization of peptides which act on rat platelets, from a pheochromocytoma". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 185 (1): 134–41.  
  • Glowa JR, Panlilio LV, Brenneman DE, Gozes I, Fridkin M, Hill JM (Jan 1992). "Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist". Brain Research 570 (1-2): 49–53.  
  • Theriault Y, Boulanger Y, St-Pierre S (Mar 1991). "Structural determination of the vasoactive intestinal peptide by two-dimensional H-NMR spectroscopy". Biopolymers 31 (4): 459–64.  
  • Gozes I, Giladi E, Shani Y (Apr 1987). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide gene: putative mechanism of information storage at the RNA level". Journal of Neurochemistry 48 (4): 1136–41.  
  • Yamagami T, Ohsawa K, Nishizawa M, Inoue C, Gotoh E, Yanaihara N, Yamamoto H, Okamoto H (1988). "Complete nucleotide sequence of human vasoactive intestinal peptide/PHM-27 gene and its inducible promoter". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 527: 87–102.  
  • Bodner M, Fridkin M, Gozes I (Jun 1985). "Coding sequences for vasoactive intestinal peptide and PHM-27 peptide are located on two adjacent exons in the human genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 82 (11): 3548–51.  
  • DeLamarter JF, Buell GN, Kawashima E, Polak JM, Bloom SR (1985). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide: expression of the prohormone in bacterial cells". Peptides. 6 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1): 95–102.  
  • Linder S, Barkhem T, Norberg A, Persson H, Schalling M, Hökfelt T, Magnusson G (Jan 1987). "Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84 (2): 605–9.  
  • Gotoh E, Yamagami T, Yamamoto H, Okamoto H (Sep 1988). "Chromosomal assignment of human VIP/PHM-27 gene to 6q26----q27 region by spot blot hybridization and in situ hybridization". Biochemistry International 17 (3): 555–62.  
  • Yiangou Y, Di Marzo V, Spokes RA, Panico M, Morris HR, Bloom SR (Oct 1987). "Isolation, characterization, and pharmacological actions of peptide histidine valine 42, a novel prepro-vasoactive intestinal peptide-derived peptide". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 262 (29): 14010–3.  
  • Gozes I, Bodner M, Shani Y, Fridkin M (1986). "Structure and expression of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene in a human tumor". Peptides. 7 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1): 1–6.  
  • Tsukada T, Horovitch SJ, Montminy MR, Mandel G, Goodman RH (Aug 1985). "Structure of the human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide gene". Dna 4 (4): 293–300.  
  • Heinz-Erian P, Dey RD, Flux M, Said SI (Sep 1985). "Deficient vasoactive intestinal peptide innervation in the sweat glands of cystic fibrosis patients". Science 229 (4720): 1407–8.  
  • Bloom SR, Christofides ND, Delamarter J, Buell G, Kawashima E, Polak JM (Nov 1983). "Diarrhoea in vipoma patients associated with cosecretion of a second active peptide (peptide histidine isoleucine) explained by single coding gene". Lancet 2 (8360): 1163–5.  

External links

  • Pathway at
  • Physiology: 6/6ch2/s6ch2_34 - Essentials of Human Physiology