World energy consumption

World energy consumption

The world's increasing demand for energy[1]





World total final consumption of 104,426 TWh (or 8,979 Mtoe) by fuels in 2012 (IEA, 2014)[2]:28

  Oil (40.7%)
  Coal/Peat/Shale (10.1%)
  Natural Gas (15.2%)
  Biofuels and waste (12.4%)
  Electricity (18.1%)
  Others (Renew.) (3.5%)

World energy consumption refers to the total energy used by all of human civilization. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanity's endeavors across every single industrial and technological sector, across every country. Being the power source metric of civilization, World Energy Consumption has deep implications for humanity's social-economic-political sphere.

Institutions such as the International Energy Agency (IEA), the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the European Environment Agency record and publish energy data periodically. Improved data and understanding of World Energy Consumption may reveal systemic trends and patterns, which could help frame current energy issues and encourage movement towards collectively useful solutions.

In 2012, the IEA estimated that the world energy consumption was 155,505 terawatt-hour (TWh), or 5.598 × 1020 joules. [2] This works out to 17.7 TW, or a bit less than the estimated 20 TW produced by radioactive decay on earth.[3] From 2000–2012 coal was the source of energy with the largest growth. The use of oil and natural gas also had considerable growth, followed by hydro power and renewable energy. Renewable energy grew at a rate faster than any other time in history during this period, which can possibly be explained by an increase in international investment in renewable energy. The demand for nuclear energy decreased, possibly due to the accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island.[1][4]

In 2011, expenditures on energy totaled over 6 trillion USD, or about 10% of the world gross domestic product (GDP). Europe spends close to one quarter of the world energy expenditures, Americans close to 20%, and Japan 6%.[5]

Contents

  • Overview 1
    • Energy supply, consumption and electricity 1.1
    • Trends 1.2
    • Emissions 1.3
  • By fuel 2
    • Fossil fuels 2.1
      • Coal 2.1.1
      • Oil 2.1.2
      • Gas 2.1.3
    • Nuclear power 2.2
    • Renewable energy 2.3
      • Hydro 2.3.1
      • Marine energy 2.3.2
      • Wind 2.3.3
      • Solar 2.3.4
      • Geothermal 2.3.5
      • Bio energy 2.3.6
  • By country 3
    • Oil 3.1
    • Coal 3.2
    • Natural gas 3.3
    • Wind power 3.4
  • By sector 4
    • European Union 4.1
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Overview

Energy supply, consumption and electricity

Key figures1
Year Primary energy
supply (TPES)2
Final energy
consumption2
Electricity
generation
Ref
1973
71,013
(Mtoe 6,106)
54,335
(Mtoe 4,672)
6,129 [2]
1990 102,569 11,821
2000 117,687 15,395
2010
147,899
(Mtoe 12,717)
100,914
(Mtoe 8,677)
21,431 [6]
2011
152,504
(Mtoe 13,113)
103,716
(Mtoe 8,918)
22,126 [7]
2012
155,505
(Mtoe 13,371)
104,426
(Mtoe 8,979)
22,668 [2]
1 all figures given in terawatt-hours (TWh)
2 converted from Mtoe into TWh (1 Mtoe = 11.63 TWh)
Source: IEA – Key World Energy Statistics, as per 2014

World total primary energy supply (TEPS), or "primary energy" differs from the world final energy consumption because much of the energy that is acquired by humans is lost as other forms of energy during the process of its refinement into usable forms of energy and its transport from its initial place of supply to consumers. For instance, when oil is extracted from the ground it must be refined into gasoline, so that it can be used in a car, and transported over long distances to gas stations where it can be used by consumers. World final energy consumption refers to the fraction the world's primary energy that is used in its final form by humanity. In 2012, world primary energy supply amounted to 155,505 terawatt-hour (TWh) or 13,371 Mtoe, while the world final energy consumption was 104,426 TWh or about 32% less than the total supply. World final energy consumption includes products as lubricants, asphalt and petrochemicals which have chemical energy content but are not used as fuel. This non-energy use amounted to 9404 TWh (809 Mtoe) in 2012.[8]

The world's electricity consumption was 18,608 TWh in 2012. This figure is about 18% smaller than the generated electricity, due to grid losses, storage losses, and self-consumption from power plants (gross generation). Cogeneration (CHP) power stations use some of the energy that is otherwise wasted for heating buildings or in industrial processes.





2012 World electricity generation by fuels (IEA, 2014)[2]:24

  Coal/Peat (40.4%)
  Natural Gas (22.5%)
  Hydro (16.2%)
  Nuclear (10.9%)
  Oil (5.0%)
  Others (Renew.) (5.0%)

The United States Energy Information Administration regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types of primary energy resources. The most recent estimate of the world energy consumption was 5.59 × 1020 joules, or 155,505 TWh, in 2012. According to the IEA the total world energy consumption was 143,851 TWh in 2008, 133,602 TWh in 2005, 117,687 TWh in 2000, and 102,569 TWh in 1990. The world electricity consumption was 18,608 TWh in 2012, 16,503 TWh in 2008, 15,105 TWh in 2005, and 12,116 TWh in 2000.[2] In 2012 approximately 22% of world energy was consumed in North America, 5% of world energy was consumed South and Central America, 23% was consumed in Europe and Eurasia, 3% was consumed in Africa, and 40% was consumed in the Asia Pacific region. [1]

In 2012, world energy consumption by power source was oil 31.4%, coal 29.0%, natural gas 21.3%, biofuels and waste 10.0%, nuclear 5.8%, and 'other' (hydro, peat, solar, wind, geothermal power, etc.) 1.1%. Oil, coal, and natural gas were the most popular energy fuels. [2]

Recently there has been a large increase in international agreements and national Energy Action Plans, such as the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive, to increase the use of renewable energy due to the growing concerns about pollution from energy sources that come from fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas. [9][10] One such initiative was the United Nations Development Programme's World Energy Assessment in 2000 that highlighted many challenges humanity would have to overcome in order to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources.[11] From 2000 - 2012 renewable energy grew at a rate higher than any other point in history, with a consumption increase of 176.5 million tonnes of oil. During this period, oil, coal, and natural gas continued to grow and had increases that were much higher than the increase in renewable energy. The following figures illustrate the growth in consumption of fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas as well as renewable sources of energy during this period.[1]

Average power in TW
of primary energy by source[12]
Fuel type 1980 2004 2006
Oil 4.38 5.58 5.74
Gas 1.80 3.45 3.61
Coal 2.34 3.87 4.27
Hydroelectric 0.60 0.93 1.00
Nuclear power 0.25 0.91 0.93
Geothermal, wind,
solar energy, wood
0.02 0.13 0.16
Total 9.48 15.0 15.8
Source: EIA – Energy Information Administration

Trends

World primary energy consumption in quadrillion Btu[13]
Energy intensity of different economies: The graph shows the ratio between energy usage and GDP for selected countries. GDP is based on 2004 purchasing power parity and 2000 dollars adjusted for inflation.[14]
GDP and energy consumption in Japan, 1958–2000: The data shows the correlation between GDP and energy use; however, it also shows that this link can be broken. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 the energy use stagnated while Japan's GDP continued to grow, after 1985, under the influence of the then much cheaper oil, energy use resumed its historical relation to GDP.[15]

The energy consumption growth in the G20 slowed down to 2% in 2011, after the strong increase of 2010. The economic crisis is largely responsible for this slow growth. For several years now, the world energy demand is characterized by the bullish Chinese and Indian markets, while developed countries struggle with stagnant economies, high oil prices, resulting in stable or decreasing energy consumption.[16]

According to IEA data from 1990 to 2008, the average energy use per person increased 10% while world population increased 27%. Regional energy use also grew from 1990 to 2008: the Middle East increased by 170%, China by 146%, India by 91%, Africa by 70%, Latin America by 66%, the USA by 20%, the EU-27 block by 7%, and world overall grew by 39%.

In 2008, total worldwide energy consumption was 132,000 terawatt-hours (TWh) or 474 exajoules (EJ). This corresponds to an average global power demand of 15 terawatts (TW).[17] In 2012, energy demand increased to 158,000 TWh (567 EJ), equivalent to an average power use of 18.0 TW.[18] Based upon some attempted estimates, making strong assumptions, the annual potentials for renewable fuels are of the order of:

Energy consumption in the G20 increased by more than 5% in 2010 after a slight decline of 2009. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years by 1.1%, or about 130 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), as a result of the financial and economic crisis, which reduced world GDP by 0.6% in 2009.[22]

This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends: Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (+4%). Conversely, in OECD, consumption was severely cut by 4.7% in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, Europe and the CIS, consumptions shrank by 4.5%, 5% and 8.5% respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18% of the total) since its consumption surged by 8% during 2009 (up from 4% in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33%) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27% of the total.

Most energy is used in the country of origin, since it is cheaper to transport final products than raw materials. In 2008, the share export of the total energy production by fuel was: oil 50% (1,952/3,941 Mt), gas 25% (800/3,149 bcm) and hard coal 14% (793/5,845 Mt).[23]

Most of the world's high energy resources are from the conversion of the sun's rays to other energy forms after being incident upon the planet. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via solar PV/thermal, wind, hydro- or wave power. The total solar irradiance is measured by satellite to be roughly 1361 watts per square meter (see solar constant), though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during the year due to the Earth's varying distance from the sun. This value, after multiplication by the cross-sectional area intercepted by the Earth, is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89,000 TW, reaches the Earth's surface.require('Module:No globals')

local p = {}

-- articles in which traditional Chinese preceeds simplified Chinese local t1st = { ["228 Incident"] = true, ["Chinese calendar"] = true, ["Lippo Centre, Hong Kong"] = true, ["Republic of China"] = true, ["Republic of China at the 1924 Summer Olympics"] = true, ["Taiwan"] = true, ["Taiwan (island)"] = true, ["Taiwan Province"] = true, ["Wei Boyang"] = true, }

-- the labels for each part local labels = { ["c"] = "Chinese", ["s"] = "simplified Chinese", ["t"] = "traditional Chinese", ["p"] = "pinyin", ["tp"] = "Tongyong Pinyin", ["w"] = "Wade–Giles", ["j"] = "Jyutping", ["cy"] = "Cantonese Yale", ["poj"] = "Pe̍h-ōe-jī", ["zhu"] = "Zhuyin Fuhao", ["l"] = "literally", }

-- article titles for wikilinks for each part local wlinks = { ["c"] = "Chinese language", ["s"] = "simplified Chinese characters", ["t"] = "traditional Chinese characters", ["p"] = "pinyin", ["tp"] = "Tongyong Pinyin", ["w"] = "Wade–Giles", ["j"] = "Jyutping", ["cy"] = "Yale romanization of Cantonese", ["poj"] = "Pe̍h-ōe-jī", ["zhu"] = "Bopomofo", }

-- for those parts which are to be treated as languages their ISO code local ISOlang = { ["c"] = "zh", ["t"] = "zh-Hant", ["s"] = "zh-Hans", ["p"] = "zh-Latn-pinyin", ["tp"] = "zh-Latn", ["w"] = "zh-Latn-wadegile", ["j"] = "yue-jyutping", ["cy"] = "yue", ["poj"] = "hak", ["zhu"] = "zh-Bopo", }

local italic = { ["p"] = true, ["tp"] = true, ["w"] = true, ["j"] = true, ["cy"] = true, ["poj"] = true, } -- Categories for different kinds of Chinese text local cats = { ["c"] = "", ["s"] = "", ["t"] = "", }

function p.Zh(frame) -- load arguments module to simplify handling of args local getArgs = require('Module:Arguments').getArgs local args = getArgs(frame) return p._Zh(args) end function p._Zh(args) local uselinks = not (args["links"] == "no") -- whether to add links local uselabels = not (args["labels"] == "no") -- whether to have labels local capfirst = args["scase"] ~= nil

        local t1 = false -- whether traditional Chinese characters go first
        local j1 = false -- whether Cantonese Romanisations go first
        local testChar
        if (args["first"]) then
                 for testChar in mw.ustring.gmatch(args["first"], "%a+") do
          if (testChar == "t") then
           t1 = true
           end
          if (testChar == "j") then
           j1 = true
           end
         end
        end
        if (t1 == false) then
         local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle()
         t1 = t1st[title.text] == true
        end

-- based on setting/preference specify order local orderlist = {"c", "s", "t", "p", "tp", "w", "j", "cy", "poj", "zhu", "l"} if (t1) then orderlist[2] = "t" orderlist[3] = "s" end if (j1) then orderlist[4] = "j" orderlist[5] = "cy" orderlist[6] = "p" orderlist[7] = "tp" orderlist[8] = "w" end -- rename rules. Rules to change parameters and labels based on other parameters if args["hp"] then -- hp an alias for p ([hanyu] pinyin) args["p"] = args["hp"] end if args["tp"] then -- if also Tongyu pinyin use full name for Hanyu pinyin labels["p"] = "Hanyu Pinyin" end if (args["s"] and args["s"] == args["t"]) then -- Treat simplified + traditional as Chinese if they're the same args["c"] = args["s"] args["s"] = nil args["t"] = nil elseif (not (args["s"] and args["t"])) then -- use short label if only one of simplified and traditional labels["s"] = labels["c"] labels["t"] = labels["c"] end local body = "" -- the output string local params -- for creating HTML spans local label -- the label, i.e. the bit preceeding the supplied text local val -- the supplied text -- go through all possible fields in loop, adding them to the output for i, part in ipairs(orderlist) do if (args[part]) then -- build label label = "" if (uselabels) then label = labels[part] if (capfirst) then label = mw.language.getContentLanguage():ucfirst(

The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4  yottajoule (YJ) or 4 × 1023 joules, and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6 to 3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. The total power flux from the sun intercepting the Earth is 5.5 YJ per year, though not all of this is available for human consumption. The IEA estimates for the world to meet global energy demand for the two decades from 2015 to 2035 it will require investment of $48 trillion and "credible policy frameworks."[24]

According to IEA (2012) the goal of limiting warming to 2 °C is becoming more difficult and costly with each year that passes. If action is not taken before 2017, CO2 emissions would be locked-in by energy infrastructure existing in 2017. Fossil fuels are dominant in the global energy mix, supported by $523 billion subsidies in 2011, up almost 30% on 2010 and six times more than subsidies to renewables.[25]

Regional energy use (kWh/capita & TWh) and growth 1990–2008 (%)[26][27]
kWh/capita Population (million) Energy use (1,000 TWh)
Region 1990 2008 Growth 1990 2008 Growth 1990 2008 Growth
USA 89,021 87,216 −2% 250 305 22% 22.3 26.6 20%
EU-27 40,240 40,821 1% 473 499 5% 19.0 20.4 7%
Middle East 19,422 34,774 79% 132 199 51% 2.6 6.9 170%
China 8,839 18,608 111% 1,141 1,333 17% 10.1 24.8 146%
Latin America 11,281 14,421 28% 355 462 30% 4.0 6.7 66%
Africa 7,094 7,792 10% 634 984 55% 4.5 7.7 70%
India 4,419 6,280 42% 850 1,140 34% 3.8 7.2 91%
Others* 25,217 23,871 nd 1,430 1,766 23% 36.1 42.2 17%
The World 19,422 21,283 10% 5,265 6,688 27% 102.3 142.3 39%
Source: IEA/OECD, Population OECD/World Bank
  • Energy use = kWh/capita* Mrd. capita (population) = 1000 TWh
  • Others: Mathematically calculated, includes e.g. countries in Asia and Australia. The use of energy varies between the "other countries": E.g. in Australia, Japan, or Canada energy is used more per capita than in Bangladesh or Burma.

Emissions

Global warming emissions resulting from energy production are an environmental problem. Efforts to resolve this include the Kyoto Protocol, which is a UN agreement aiming to reduce harmful climate impacts, which a number of nations have signed. Limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, thought to be a risk by the SEI, is now doubtful.

To limit global temperature to a hypothetical 2 degrees Celsius rise would demand a 75% decline in carbon emissions in industrial countries by 2050, if the population is 10 billion in 2050.[28] Across 40 years, this averages to a 2% decrease every year. In 2011, the emissions of energy production continued rising regardless of the consensus of the basic problem. Hypothetically, according to Robert Engelman (Worldwatch institute), in order to prevent collapse, human civilization would have to stop increasing emissions within a decade regardless of the economy or population (2009).[29]

Greenhouse gasses are not the only emissions of energy production and consumption. Large amounts of pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass; the World Health Organisation estimates that 7 million premature deaths are caused each year by air pollution.[30] Biomass combustion is a major contributor,[30][31][32] even though it is typically counted as renewable in energy statistics. In addition to producing air pollution like fossil fuel combustion, most biomass has high CO2 emissions.[33]

By fuel

Fossil fuels

The twentieth century saw a rapid twenty-fold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2006, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%.[17] According to the US Energy Information Administration's 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004, was divided as given in the table above, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world's energy:

Coal

In 2000, China accounted for 28% of world coal consumption, other Asia consumed 19%, North America 25% and the EU 14%. The single greatest coal-consuming country is China. Its share of the world coal production was 28% in 2000 and rose to 48% in 2009. In contrast to China's ~70% increase in coal consumption, world coal use increased 48% from 2000 to 2009. In practice, the majority of this growth occurred in China and the rest in other Asia.[34] China's energy consumption is mostly driven by the industry sector, the majority of which comes from coal consumption.[35]
World annual coal production increased 1,905 Mt or 32% in 6 years in 2011 compared to 2005, of which over 70% was in China and 8% in India. Coal production was in 2011 7,783 Mt, and 2009 6,903 Mt, equal to 12.7% production increase in two years.[36]
If production and consumption of coal continue at the rate as in 2008, proven and economically recoverable world reserves of coal would last for about 150 years. This is much more than needed for an irreversible climate catastrophe. Coal is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. According to IEA Coal Information (2007) world production and use of coal have increased considerably in recent years.[37] According to James Hansen the single most important action needed to tackle the climate crisis is to reduce CO2 emissions from coal.[38] Indonesia and Australia exported together 57.1% of the world coal export in 2011. China, Japan, South Korea, India and Taiwan had 65% share of all the world coal import in 2011.[39]
Regional coal supply (TWh), share 2010 (%) and share of change 2000–2010[34][40]
Region 2000 2008 2009* 2010* %* Change
2000–2009*
North America 6,654 6,740 6,375 6,470 16% −1.2%
Asia excl. China 5,013 7,485 7,370 7,806 19% 18.9%
China 7,318 16,437 18,449 19,928 48% 85.5%
EU 3,700 3,499 3,135 3,137 8% −3.8%
Africa 1,049 1,213 1,288 1,109 3% 0.4%
Russia 1,387 1,359 994 1,091 3% −2.0%
Others 1,485 1,763 1,727 1,812 4% 2.2%
Total 26,607 38,497 39,340 41,354 100% 100%
Source: IEA, *in 2009, 2010 BP
*Change 2000–2009: Region's share of the world change +12,733 TWh from 2000 to 2009
Top 10 coal exporters (Mt)[41]
Rank Nation 2010 2011 Share
% 2011
2012
1 Indonesia 162 309 29.7% 383
2 Australia 298 285 27.4% 302
3 Russia 89 99 9.5% 103
4 US 57 85 8.2% 106
5 Colombia 68 76 7.3% 82
6 South Africa 68 70 6.7% 72
7 Kazakhstan 33 34 3.3% 32
8 Canada 24 24 2.3% 25
9 Vietnam 21 23 2.2% 18
10 Mongolia 17 22 2.1% 22
x Others 19 14 1.3%
Total (Mt) 856 1,041 1,168
Top ten 97.8% 98.7%

Oil

Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading use of electricity, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil.[42] Coal, natural gas, and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the U.S. the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, which bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world.[43] From 1965 to 2008, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. From 2003 to 2008, coal was the fastest growing fossil fuel.[44]
It is estimated that between 100 and 135 billion tonnes of oil has been consumed between 1850 and the present.[45]

Gas

In 2009, the world use of gas was 131% compared to year 2000. 66% of this growth was outside EU, North America Latin America and Russia. Others include Middle East, Asia and Africa. The gas supply increased also in the previous regions: 8.6% in the EU and 16% in the North America 2000–2009.[46]
Regional gas supply (TWh) and share 2010 (%)[40][46]
Land 2000 2008 2009 2010 %
North America 7,621 7,779 8,839 8,925 27%
Asia excl. China 2,744 4,074 4,348 4,799 14%
China 270 825 1,015 1,141 3%
EU 4,574 5,107 4,967 5,155 16%
Africa 612 974 1,455 1,099 3%
Russia 3,709 4,259 4,209 4,335 13%
Latin America 1,008 1,357 958 nd nd
Others 3,774 5,745 6,047 7,785 23%
Total 24,312 30,134 31,837 33,240 100%
Source: IEA, in 2009, 2010 BP

Nuclear power

As of 7 March 2013, the world had 434 operable reactors with 66 others currently under construction.[47][48] Since commercial nuclear energy began in the mid 1950s, 2008 was the first year that no new nuclear power plant was connected to the grid, although two were connected in 2009.[48][49]

Annual generation of nuclear power has been on a slight downward trend since 2007, decreasing 1.8% in 2009 to 2558 TWh, and another 1.6% in 2011 to 2518 TWh despite in increases in production from most countries worldwide while Germany and Japan showed significant drops in output. Nuclear power met 11.7% of the world's electricity demand in 2011. Source: IEA/OECD[7]

Renewable energy

Strong public support for renewables worldwide in 2011[50]
Comparision of global potential of the world's energy sources

Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that comes from resources that are not significantly depleted by their use, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves and geothermal heat.[51] Renewable energy is gradually replacing conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.[52]

Based on REN21's 2014 report, renewables contributed 19 percent to our energy consumption and 22 percent to our electricity generation in 2012 and 2013, respectively. This energy consumption is divided as 9% coming from traditional biomass, 4.2% as heat energy (non-biomass), 3.8% hydro electricity and 2% electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. Worldwide investments in renewable technologies amounted to more than US$214 billion in 2013, with countries like China and the United States heavily investing in wind, hydro, solar and biofuels.[53] Renewable energy resources exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits.[54] In international public opinion surveys there is strong support for promoting renewable sources such as solar power and wind power.[55] At the national level, at least 30 nations around the world already have renewable energy contributing more than 20 percent of energy supply. National renewable energy markets are projected to continue to grow strongly in the coming decade and beyond.[56]

Hydro

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by Itaipu Dam in Brazil, and Guri Dam in Venezuela.[57]

Marine energy

Marine energy, also known as ocean energy and marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) includes tidal and wave power and is a relatively new sector of renewable energy, with most projects still in the pilot phase, but the theoretical potential is equivalent to 4–18 million tonne of oil equivalent (toe). MHK development in U.S. and international waters includes projects using devices such as, wave energy converters in open coastal areas with significant waves, tidal turbines placed in coastal and estuarine areas, in-stream turbines in fast-moving rivers, ocean current turbines in areas of strong marine currents, and ocean thermal energy converters in deep tropical waters.[58]

Wind

Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 238,351 megawatts (MW) at the end of 2011,[59][60][61] and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States.[62][63] Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 21% of stationary electricity production in Denmark,[64] 18% in Portugal,[64] 16% in Spain,[64] 14% in Ireland[65] and 9% in Germany in 2010.[64][66] As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.[66] In 2013 wind generated almost 3% of the worlds total electricity.[67]

Solar

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, concentrated solar power and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. The International Energy Agency projected that solar power could provide "a third of the global final energy demand after 2060, while CO2 emissions would be reduced to very low levels."[68] Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Geothermal

Geothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries.[69] In 2004, 200 petajoules (56 TWh) of electricity was generated from geothermal resources, and an additional 270 petajoules (75 TWh) of geothermal energy was used directly, mostly for space heating. In 2007, the world had a global capacity for 10 GW of electricity generation and an additional 28 GW of direct heating, including extraction by geothermal heat pumps.[70][71] Heat pumps are small and widely distributed, so estimates of their total capacity are uncertain and range up to 100 GW.[69]

Bio energy

Until the beginning of the nineteenth century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from biomass sources was estimated at 44 GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, and Spain. A further 220 GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264 GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded.[70] World production of bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach 33 gigalitres (8.7×109 US gal), with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil.[70] Biodiesel increased by 85% to 3.9 gigalitres (1.0×109 US gal), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.[70]

By country




World total final consumption of 104,426 TWh (or 8,979 Mtoe) by region in 2012 (IEA, 2014)[2]

  OECD (39.8%)
  Middle East (5.0%)
  Non-OECD Europe /Eurasia (8.3%)
  China (19.1%)
  Asia (w/o China) (12.7%)
  Non-OECD Americas (5.2%)
  Africa (6.0%)
  Bunkers (3.9%)

Energy consumption is loosely correlated with gross national product and climate, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as Japan and Germany with an energy consumption rate of 6 kW per person and the United States with an energy consumption rate of 11.4 kW per person. In developing countries, particularly those that are sub-tropical or tropical such as India, the per person energy use rate is closer to 0.7 kW. Bangladesh has the lowest consumption rate with 0.2 kW per person.

The US consumes 25% of the world's energy with a share of global GDP at 22% and a share of the world population at 4.59%.[72] The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in China, which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people (19.6% of the world population[72]) is consuming energy at a rate of 1.6 kW per person.

One measurement of efficiency is energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product.

Oil

Saudi Arabia, Russia and the United States accounted for 34% of oil production in 2011. Saudi Arabia, Russia and Nigeria accounted for 36% of oil export in 2011.

Top 10 oil producers (Mt)[41]
Rank Nation 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share %
2011
2012
1 Saudi Arabia 519 509 452 471 517 12.9% 544
2 Russia 470 485 494 502 510 12.7% 520
3 United States 307 300 320 336 346 8.6% 387
4 Iran 205 214 206 227 215 5.4% 186
5 China 183 190 194 200 203 5.1% 206
6 Canada 143 155 152 159 169 4.2% 182
7 UAE nd 136 120 129 149 3.7% 163
8 Venezuela 162 137 126 149 148 3.7% 162
9 Mexico 188 159 146 144 144 3.6% nd
10 Nigeria 133 nd nd 130 139 3.5% nd
x Kuwait nd 145 124 nd nd nd 152
x Iraq nd nd nd nd nd nd 148
x Norway 139 nd nd nd nd nd nd
Total 3,923 3,941 3,843 3,973 4,011 100%
Top ten 62% 62% 61% 62% 63%
Top 10 oil exporters (Mt)[73]
Rank Nation 2011 Share %
2011
2012
1 Saudi Arabia 333 17.0%
2 Russia 246 12.5%
3 Nigeria 129 6.6%
4 Iran 126 6.4%
5 UAE 105 5.4%
6 Iraq 94 4.8%
7 Venezuela 87 4.4%
8 Angola 84 4.3%
9 Norway 78 4.0%
10 Mexico 71 3.6%
x Others 609 31.0%
Total (Mt) 1,962

Coal

Top 10 coal producers (Mt)[41]
Rank Nation 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share %
2011
2012
1 China 2,226 2,761 2,971 3,162 3,576 46% 3,549
2 US 1,028 1,076 985 997 1,004 13% 935
3 India 430 521 561 571 586 8% 595
4 Australia 372 397 399 420 414 5% 421
5 Indonesia 318 284 301 336 376 5% 443
6 Russia 222 323 297 324 334 4% 354
7 South Africa 315 236 247 255 253 3% 259
8 Germany nd nd nd nd 189 2% 197
9 Poland 160 144 135 134 139 2% 144
10 Kazakhstan 79 108 101 111 117 2% 126
11 Colombia 65 79 73 74 1% nd nd
Total 5,878 6,796 6,903 7,229 7,783 100% 7,831
Top ten 89% 87% 88% 88% nd 90%
*include hard coal and brown coal
Top 10 coal importers (Mt)[74]
Rank Nation 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011
1 China 25 nd 114 157 177
2 Japan 178 186 165 187 175
3 South Korea 77 100 103 119 129
4 India 37 58 66 88 101
5 Taiwan 61 66 60 63 66
6 Germany 38 46 38 45 41
7 UK 44 43 38 26 32
8 Turkey nd 19 20 27 24
9 Italy 24 25 19 22 23
10 Malaysia nd nd nd 19 21
x Spain 25 19 16 nd nd
x France nd 21 nd nd nd
x US 28 nd nd nd nd
Total 778 778 819 949 1,002
Top ten 69% 75% 78% 79% 79%
Import of production 16% 13% 14% 15% 13%
*2005–2010 hard coal

Natural gas

Top 10 natural gas producers (bcm)[73]
Rank Nation 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share %
2011
1 Russia 627 657 589 637 677 20.0%
2 US 517 583 594 613 651 19.2%
3 Canada 187 175 159 160 160 4.7%
4 Qatar nd 79 89 121 151 4.5%
5 Iran 84 121 144 145 149 4.4%
6 Norway 90 103 106 107 106 3.1%
7 China nd 76 90 97 103 3.0%
8 Saudi Arabia 70 nd nd 82 92 2.7%
9 Indonesia 77 77 76 88 92 2.7%
10 Netherlands 79 85 79 89 81 2.4%
x Algeria 93 82 81 nd nd nd
x UK 93 nd nd nd nd nd
Total 2,872 3,149 3,101 3,282 100% 3,388
Top ten 67% 65% 65% 65% 67%
bcm = billion cubic meters
Top 10 natural gas importers (bcm)[73]
Rank Nation 2005 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share %
2011
1 Japan 81 95 93 99 116 13.9%
2 Italy 73 77 69 75 70 8.4%
3 Germany 91 79 83 83 68 8.2%
4 US 121 84 76 74 55 6.6%
5 South Korea 29 36 33 43 47 5.6%
6 Ukraine 62 53 38 37 44 5.3%
7 Turkey 27 36 35 37 43 5.2%
8 France 47 44 45 46 41 4.9%
9 UK nd 26 29 37 37 4.4%
10 Spain 33 39 34 36 34 4.1%
x Netherlands 23 nd nd nd nd nd
Total 838 783 749 820 834 100%
Top ten 70% 73% 71% 69% 67%
Import of production 29% 25% 24% 25% 25%
bcm = billion cubic meters

Wind power

Top 10 countries
by nameplate windpower capacity
(2011 year-end)[75]
Country Windpower capacity
(MW) ǂprovisional
% world total
China 62,733ǂ 26.3
United States 46,919 19.7
Germany 29,060 12.2
Spain 21,674 9.1
India 16,084 6.7
France 6,800ǂ 2.8
Italy 6,747 2.8
United Kingdom 6,540 2.7
Canada 5,265 2.2
Portugal 4,083 1.7
(rest of world) 32,446 13.8
World total 238,351 MW 100%
Top 10 countries
by windpower electricity production
(2010 totals)[76]
Country Windpower production
(TWh)
% world total
United States 95.2 27.6
China 55.5 15.9
Spain 43.7 12.7
Germany 36.5 10.6
India 20.6 6.0
United Kingdom 10.2 3.0
France 9.7 2.8
Portugal 9.1 2.6
Italy 8.4 2.5
Canada 8.0 2.3
(rest of world) 48.5 14.1
World total 344.8 TWh 100%

By sector

World energy use per sector[77]
Year 2000 2008 2000 2008
Sector TWh %*
Industry 21,733 27,273 26.5 27.8
Transport 22,563 26,742 27.5 27.3
Residential and service 30,555 35,319 37.3 36.0
Non-energy use 7,119 8,688 8.7 8.9
Total* 81,970 98,022 100 100
Source: IEA 2010, Total is calculated from the given sectors
Numbers are the end use of energy
Total world energy supply (2008) 143,851 TWh

Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) consume about 37% of the total 15 TW. Personal and commercial transportation consumes 20%; residential heating, lighting, and appliances use 11%; and commercial uses (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) amount to 5% of the total.[78]

The other 27% of the world's energy is lost in energy transmission and generation. In 2005, global electricity consumption averaged 2 TW. The energy rate used to generate 2 TW of electricity is approximately 5 TW, as the efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%.[79] The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world's electricity plants.[80]

Total world energy use per sector was in 2008 industry 28%, transport 27% and residential and service 36%. Division was about the same in the year 2000.[77]

European Union

The European Environmental Agency (EEA) measures final energy consumption (does not include energy used in production and lost in transportation) and finds that the transport sector is responsible for 31.8% of final energy consumption, households 26.2%, industry 25.6%, services 13.5% and agriculture 2.9% in 2012.[81] The use of energy is responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions (79%), with the energy sector representing 31%, transport 19%, industry 13%, households 9% and others 7%.[82]

While efficient energy use and resource efficiency are growing as public policy issues, more than 70% of coal plants in the European Union are more than 20 years old and operate at an efficiency level of between 32–40%.[83] Technological developments in the 1990s have allowed efficiencies in the range of 40–45% at newer plants.[83] However, according to an impact assessment by the European Commission, this is still below the best available technological (BAT) efficiency levels of 46–49%.[83] With gas-fired power plants the average efficiency is 52% compared to 58–59% with best available technology (BAT), and gas and oil boiler plants operate at average 36% efficiency (BAT delivers 47%).[83] According to that same impact assessment by the European Commission, raising the efficiency of all new plants and the majority of existing plants, through the setting of authorisation and permit conditions, to an average generation efficiency of 51.5% in 2020 would lead to a reduction in annual consumption of 15 km3 (3.6 cu mi) of natural gas and 25 Mt (25,000,000 long tons; 28,000,000 short tons) of coal.[83]

See also

Regional
Lists

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
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  50. ^ {{Navbox |name = Television drama series |title = Television drama series |state = autocollapse |listclass = hlist |group1 = By location

    |list1 =

    |group2 = Genres

    |list2 =

    |group3 = List by country

    |list3 =

    |group4 = Format |list4 =

    • Serial
    • [[Procedural drama|P#REDIRECT
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External links

  • World Energy Outlook
  • Official Energy Statistics from the US government
  • Energy Statistics and News from the European Union
  • Annual Energy Review, by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (PDF)
  • Assessment of Electricity Consumption in Western Europe for the first half of 2014