|Main ingredients||Milk, bacteria|
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||257 kJ (61 kcal)|
|Sugars||4.7 g (*)|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
(*) Lactose content diminishes during storage.
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tang. Worldwide, cow's milk, the protein of which is mainly casein, is most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks, however, is also used to produce yogurt in various parts of the world.
Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of
- US National Center for Home Food Preservation: Fermenting Yogurt at Home
- Acidified milk in different countries
- Dalby, A. Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-15657-2
- Swiss Food Law: Article 56, Yogurt, section 2: "The final product must contain a total of at least 10 million colony forming units of microorganisms under paragraph 1 or 1.2 per gram."
- . Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Yogurt entry. Merriam-Webster Online
- Kélékian, Diran (1911) Dictionnaire Turc-Français, Imprimerie Mihran, Constantinople
- Hasan Eren (1999), Türk Dilinin Etimolojik Sözlüğü, Ankara, p. 455-456
- A brief history of Yogurt: Haven't we misspelled "yoghurt"? at the Wayback Machine (archived 17 January 2012) freskoyogurtbar.gr.
- Yogurt. Dairy Australia. Retrieved on 9 April 2013.
- British Dairy Council – Production of yogurt
- Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 587–588, ISBN 052162181X.
- Deverson, Tony (2004) "yoghurt n." in The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
- Fee, Margery and McAlpine, Janice (2007). Guide to Canadian English Usage (2nd ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press. p. 625, ISBN 0195426029.
- Dalby, p. 66
- The Natural History of Pliny, tr. John Bostock, Henry Thomas Riley, London: Bell, 1856–93, Volume 3, p. 84: "It is a remarkable circumstance, that the barbarous nations which subsist on milk have been for so many ages either ignorant of the merits of cheese, or else have totally disregarded it; and yet they understand how to thicken milk and form therefrom an acrid kind of milk with a pleasant flavour".
- "Dr. John Harvey Kellogg." museumofquackery.com, 20 April 2010, Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Yale-New Haven Hospital nutrition advisor – Understanding yogurt at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 May 2008). ynhh.com. Retrieved on 9 April 2013.
- Greek Tzatziki recipe accessed by iGreekYoghurt on 9 October 2014
- Acidified milk in different countries. Fao.org. Retrieved on 9 April 2013.
- BBC:'Greek' yoghurt Chobani firm loses legal battle, 29 January 2014.
- Amy Height, "Non-Dairy Yogurt", One Green Planet, 29 December 2014.
Other fermented dairy products
This initial process is the first step in making strained yogurt as mentioned above by eliminating some of the liquid whey.
The yogurt making process provides two significant barriers to pathogen growth: (a) heat and (b) acidity (low pH). Both are necessary to ensure a safe product. Acidity alone has been questioned by recent outbreaks of food poisoning by E. coli O157:H7 that is acid-tolerant. E. coli O157:H7 is easily destroyed by pasteurization (heating). Therefore, pasteurized milk is used for making yogurt.
The milk used to make yogurt contains a higher concentration of solids than normal milk. By increasing the solids content of the milk, a firm, rather than soft, end product results. Addition of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) is the easiest at-home method for doing this. Another method is using scalded milk: heating milk near boiling, then letting it cool down to 40 to 46 °C (105 to 115 °F). The process denaturates whey proteins, which makes yogurt thicker.
Yogurt is made by inoculating certain bacteria (starter culture), usually Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, into milk. Starter culture may be provided by a pre-packaged powder or an amount of existing yogurt with live bacteria. After inoculation, the milk is incubated at 40 to 46 °C (105 to 115 °F) until firm; the milk is coagulated by bacteria-produced lactic acid.
Making yogurt at home
A variety of plant-milk yogurts appeared in the 2000s, using soy milk, rice milk, and nut milks such as almond milk and coconut milk. The products are aimed at vegans, as well as consumers who prefer plant milks or are unable to tolerate dairy products.
Also in Turkey, yogurt soup or Yayla Çorbası is a popular way of consuming yogurt. The soup is a mix of yogurt, rice, flour and dried mint.
Also available are "yogurt smoothies", which contain a higher proportion of fruit and are more like smoothies. In Ecuador, yogurt smoothies flavored with native fruit are served with pan de yuca as a common type of fast food.
Sweetened yogurt drinks are the usual form in Europe (including the UK) and the US, containing fruit and added sweeteners. These are typically called "drinking / drinkable yogurt", such as Yop and BioBest Smoothie.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia, an unsweetened and unsalted yogurt drink usually called simply jogurt is a popular accompaniment to burek and other baked goods.
Lassi (Hindi: लस्सी, Urdu: لسی) is a yogurt-based beverage originally from the Indian subcontinent that is usually slightly salty or sweet. Lassi is a staple in Punjab. In some parts of the subcontinent, the sweet version may be commercially flavored with rosewater, mango or other fruit juice to create a very different drink. Salty lassi is usually flavored with ground, roasted cumin and red chilies; this salty variation may also use buttermilk, and in India is interchangeably called ghol (Bengal), mattha (North India), "majjige" (Karnataka), majjiga (Telangana & Andhra Pradesh), moru (Tamil Nadu and Kerala), Dahi paani Chalha (Odisha), tak (Maharashtra), or chaas (Gujarat). Lassi is very widely drunk in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Mango Lassi is a popular drink at Indian restaurants in US.
Borhani (or Burhani) is a spicy yogurt drink popular in Bangladesh and parts of Bengal. It is usually served with kacchi biryani at weddings and special feasts. Key ingredients are yogurt blended with mint leaves (mentha), mustard seeds and black rock salt (Kala Namak). Ground roasted cumin, ground white pepper, green chili pepper paste and sugar are often added.
Dugh ("dawghe" in Neo-Aramaic), ayran or dhallë is a yogurt-based, salty drink popular in Iran, Kurdistan Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Macedonia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. It is made by mixing yogurt with water and (sometimes) salt. The same drink is known as doogh in Iran and in some parts of Kurdistan; tan in Armenia; laban ayran in Syria and Lebanon; shenina in Iraq and Jordan; laban arbil in Iraq; majjiga (Telugu), majjige (Kannada), and moru (Tamil and Malayalam) in South India; namkeen lassi in Punjab and all over Pakistan. A similar drink, doogh, is popular in the Middle East between Lebanon, Iran, and Iraq; it differs from ayran by the addition of herbs, usually mint, and is sometimes carbonated, commonly with carbonated water.
In North America and Britain, strained yogurt is commonly called “Greek yogurt”. Strained yogurt is sometimes marketed in North America as "Greek yogurt" and in Britain as "Greek-style yoghurt". In Britain the name "Greek" may only be applied to yogurt made in Greece
Strained yogurt is also enjoyed in Greece and is the main component of tzatziki (from Turkish "cacık"), a well-known accompaniment to gyros and souvlaki pita sandwiches: it is a yogurt sauce or dip made with the addition of grated cucumber, olive oil, salt and, optionally, mashed garlic.
Some types of strained yogurts are boiled in open vats first, so that the liquid content is reduced. The popular East Indian dessert, a variation of traditional dahi called mishti dahi, offers a thicker, more custard-like consistency, and is usually sweeter than western yogurts.
Yogurt that has been strained to filter or remove the whey is known as Labneh in Middle Eastern countries. It has a consistency between that of yogurt and cheese. It is popular for sandwiches in Arab countries. Olive oil, cucumber slices, olives, and various green herbs may be added. It can be thickened further and rolled into balls, preserved in olive oil, and fermented for a few more weeks. It is sometimes used with onions, meat, and nuts as a stuffing for a variety of pies or kibbeh (كبة) balls.
Strained yogurt is yogurt which has been strained through a filter, traditionally made of muslin and more recently of paper or cloth. This removes the whey, giving a much thicker consistency and a distinctive slightly tangy taste. Strained yogurt is becoming more popular with those who make yogurt at home, especially if using skimmed milk which results in a thinner consistency.
The American Heart Association recommends that men eat no more than 36 grams of sugar per day, and women no more than 20. One Twinkie makes a big dent in that recommended daily max, packing 19 grams of the sweet stuff, Time reported. Many of the top-selling yogurts have even more.
A 150g (5oz) serving of some 0% fat yogurts can contain as much as 20g (0.7oz) of sugar - the equivalent of five teaspoons, says Action on Sugar. That is about half of a woman's daily recommended intake of added sugar, which is 50g (1.7oz). It's 70g (2.5oz) for men. (from the BBC)
There is concern about the health effects of sweetened yogurt. The United Kingdom and the United States recommend different maximum amounts of daily sugar intake but in both nations many sweetened yogurts have too much.
In the UK, Ireland, France and United States, sweetened, flavored yogurt is the most popular type, typically sold in single-serving plastic cups. Common flavors include vanilla, honey, and toffee, and fruit such as strawberry, cherry, blueberry, blackberry, raspberry, mango and peach. In the early twenty-first century yogurt flavors inspired by desserts, such as chocolate or cheesecake, have been available.
Large amounts of sugar – or other sweeteners for low-calorie yogurts – are often used in commercial yogurt. Some yogurts contain added starch, pectin (found naturally in fruit), and/or gelatin to create thickness and creaminess artificially at lower cost. Gelatin is a meat or fish product, therefore vegetarians should avoid products containing it. This type of yogurt is also marketed under the name Swiss-style, although it is unrelated to the way yogurt is eaten in Switzerland. Some yogurts, often called "cream line", are made with whole milk which has not been homogenized so the cream rises to the top. Fruit jam is used instead of raw fruit pieces in fruit yogurts to allow storage for weeks.
Lassi and Moru are common beverages in India. Lassi is milk that is sweetened with sugar commonly, less commonly honey and often combined with fruit pulp to create flavored lassi. Mango lassi is a western favorite, as is coconut lassi. Consistency can vary widely, with urban and commercial lassis being of uniform texture through being processed, whereas rural and rustic lassi has curds in it, and sometimes has malai (cream) added or removed. Moru is a popular South Indian summer drink, meant to keep drinkers hydrated through the hot and humid summers of the South. It is prepared by considerably thinning down yogurt with water, adding salt (for electrolyte balance) and spices, usually green chilli peppers, asafoetida, curry leaves and mustard.
To offset its natural sourness, yogurt is also sold sweetened, flavored or in containers with fruit or fruit jam on the bottom. The two styles of yogurt commonly found in the grocery store are set type yogurt and Swiss style yogurt. Set type yogurt is when the yogurt is packaged with the fruit on the bottom of the cup and the yogurt on top. Swiss style yogurt is when the fruit is blended into the yogurt prior to packaging.
Sweetened and flavored yogurt
Zabadi is the type of yogurt made in Egypt, usually from the milk of the Egyptian water buffalo. It is particularly associated with Ramadan fasting, as it is thought to prevent thirst during all-day fasting.
Cream-top yogurt is yogurt made with unhomogenized milk. A layer of cream rises to the top, forming a rich yogurt cream. Cream-top yogurt was first made commercially popular in the United States by Brown Cow of Newfield, New York, bucking the trend toward low- and non-fat yogurts.
Dovga, a yogurt soup cooked with a variety of herbs and rice is popular in Azerbaijan, often served warm in winter or refreshingly cold in summer.
Rahmjoghurt, a creamy yogurt with much higher fat content (10%) than many yogurts offered in English-speaking countries (Rahm is German for "cream"), is available in Germany and other countries.
Khyar w Laban (cucumber and yogurt salad) is a popular dish in Lebanon and Syria. Also, a wide variety of local Lebanese and Syrian dishes are cooked with yogurt like "Kibbi bi Laban", etc.
Tarator and Cacık are popular cold soups made from yogurt, popular during summertime in Albania, Azerbaijan (known as Dogramac), Bulgaria, Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey. They are made with ayran, cucumbers, dill, salt, olive oil, and optionally garlic and ground walnuts. Tzatziki in Greece and milk salad in Bulgaria are thick yogurt-based salads similar to tarator.
100." Matsoni is also popular in Japan under the name Caspian Sea Yogurt (カスピ海ヨーグルト).
In Northern Iran, Mâst Chekide is a variety of kefir yogurt with a distinct sour taste. It is usually mixed with a pesto-like water and fresh herb purée called delal. Yogurt is a side dish to all Iranian meals. The most popular appetizers are spinach or eggplant borani, Mâst-o-Khiâr with cucumber, spring onions and herbs, and Mâst-Musir with wild shallots. In the summertime, yogurt and ice cubes are mixed together with cucumbers, raisins, salt, pepper and onions and topped with some croutons made of Persian traditional bread and served as a cold soup. Ashe-Mâst is a warm yogurt soup with fresh herbs, spinach and lentils. Even the leftover water extracted when straining yogurt is cooked to make a sour cream sauce called kashk, which is usually used as a topping on soups and stews.
Yogurt is popular in Nepal, where it is served as both an appetizer and dessert. Locally called dahi (दही), it is a part of the Nepali culture, used in local festivals, marriage ceremonies, parties, religious occasions, family gatherings, and so on. The most famous type of Nepalese yogurt is called juju dhau, originating from the city of Bhaktapur. In Tibet, yak milk (technically dri milk, as the word yak refers to the male animal) is made into yogurt (and butter and cheese) and consumed.
Raita is a yogurt-based South Asian/Indian condiment, used as a side dish. The yogurt is seasoned with coriander (cilantro), cumin, mint, cayenne pepper, and other herbs and spices. Vegetables such as cucumber and onions are mixed in, and the mixture is served chilled. Raita has a cooling effect on the palate which makes it a good foil for spicy Indian and Pakistani dishes. Raita is sometimes also referred to as dahi.
In India and Pakistan, it is often used in cosmetics mixed with turmeric and honey. Sour yogurt, is also used as a hair conditioner by women in many parts of India and Pakistan. Dahi is also known as Mosaru (Kannada), Thayir (Tamil), Thayiru (Malayalam), doi (Assamese, Bengali), dohi (Odia), perugu (Telugu), Qәzana a pәәner (Pashto) and Dhahi or Dhaunro (Sindhi ڏهي، ڌونرو)
Da-hi is a yogurt of the Indian subcontinent, known for its characteristic taste and consistency. The word da-hi seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word dadhi, one of the five elixirs, or panchamrita, often used in Hindu ritual. Dahi also holds cultural symbolism in many homes in the Mithila region of Nepal and Bihar. Yogurt balances the palate across regional cuisines throughout India. In the hot and humid south, yogurt and foods made of yogurt are a staple in order to cool down - yogurt rice is always the last dish of the meal. Also, the primarily vegetarian population of India derives some protein from yogurt (other than lentil and beans). Sweet yogurt (meesti doi or meethi dahi) is common in eastern parts of India, made by fermenting sweetened milk. While cows' milk is considered sacred and is currently the primary ingredient for yogurt, goat and buffalo milk were widely used in the past, and valued for the fat content (see buffalo curd). Butter and cream were made by churning the yogurt/milk.
Varieties and presentation
Yogurt has been claimed to have many health benefits. There is moderate-quality evidence to support the idea that consumption of dairy products, including yogurt, may reduce the risk of high blood pressure. However, the precise mechanism for this effect is not fully understood.
The above shows a discrepancy with respect to the amount of sodium. The increase in sodium may be explained as a result of testing the product after draining liquid whey from the yogurt thereby increasing the percentage of sodium in the final product.
Tilde (~) represents missing or incomplete data.
|Total Fat||7.9 g||8.5 g|
|Cholesterol||24.4 mg||11 mg|
|Sodium||98 mg||113 mg|
|Total Carbohydrates||12.8 g||12 g|
|Protein||7.9 g||9 g|
|Vitamin A||249 IU||243 IU|
|Vitamin C||0.0 mg||1.2 mg|
|Vitamin D||96.5 IU||~|
|Vitamin E||0.1 mg||0.1 mg|
|Vitamin K||0.5 μg||0.5 μg|
|Thiamine||0.1 mg||0.1 mg|
|Riboflavin||0.3 mg||0.3 mg|
|Niacin||0.3 mg||0.2 mg|
|Vitamin B6||0.1 mg||0.1 mg|
|Folate||12.2 μg||17.2 μg|
|Vitamin B12||1.1 μg||0.9 μg|
|Choline||34.9 mg||1.0 mg|
|Water||215 g||215 g|
|Ash||1.7 g||1.8 g|
Yogurt is nutritionally rich in protein, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. It has nutritional benefits beyond those of milk, namely due to its probiotics. Lactose-intolerant individuals may tolerate yogurt better than other dairy products due to the conversion of lactose to the sugars glucose and galactose, and the fermentation of lactose to lactic acid carried out by the bacteria present in the yogurt. Yogurt contains varying amounts of fat. For example, some cows'-milk yogurts contain no fat; others of low fat content have 2% fat, whole-milk yogurt may have 4% fat; some yogurts sold as "Greek-style" may have about 10% fat.
Yogurt was introduced to the United States in the first decade of the twentieth century, influenced by Élie Metchnikoff's The Prolongation of Life; Optimistic Studies (1908); it was available in tablet form for those with digestive intolerance and for home culturing. It was popularized by John Harvey Kellogg at the Battle Creek Sanitarium, where it was used both orally and in enemas, and later by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started "Colombo and Sons Creamery" in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929. Colombo Yogurt was originally delivered around New England in a horse-drawn wagon inscribed with the Armenian word "madzoon" which was later changed to "yogurt", the Turkish name of the product, as Turkish was the lingua franca between immigrants of the various Near Eastern ethnicities who were the main consumers at that time. Yogurt's popularity in the United States was enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s, when it was presented as a health food. By the late 20th century, yogurt had become a common American food item and Colombo Yogurt was sold in 1993 to General Mills, which discontinued the brand in 2010.
Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yogurt. In 1919, Carasso, who was from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yogurt business in Barcelona, Spain, and named the business Danone ("little Daniel") after his son. The brand later expanded to the United States under an Americanized version of the name: Dannon.
Until the 1900s, yogurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire (and especially Central Asia and the Caucasus), Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, and India. Stamen Grigorov (1878–1945), a Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva, first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yogurt. In 1905, he described it as consisting of a spherical and a rod-like lactic acid bacteria. In 1907, the rod-like bacterium was called Bacillus bulgaricus (now Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus). The Russian Nobel laureate and biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (also known as Élie Metchnikoff), from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov's work and hypothesized that regular consumption of yogurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants. Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularize yogurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe.
Some accounts suggest that Indian emperor Akbar's cooks would flavor yogurt with mustard seeds and cinnamon. Another early account of a European encounter with yogurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who allegedly cured the patient with yogurt. Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food which had cured him.
The oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder, who remarked that certain "barbarous nations" knew how "to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity". The use of yogurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Diwan Lughat al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century. Both texts mention the word "yogurt" in different sections and describe its use by nomadic Turks. The earliest yogurts were probably spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria in goat skin bags.
The cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala (οξύγαλα) which is believed to have been a form of yogurt. Galen (AD 129 – c. 200/c. 216) mentioned that oxygala was consumed with honey, similar to the way thickened Greek yogurt is eaten today.
The "milk" in the biblical reference to "the land flowing with milk and honey" was actually a fermented yogurt style drink. Yogurt contains far less lactose and lasts longer than "sweet milk", or fresh milk, allowing the Israelites the opportunity to consume the beverage for an extended period of time. The scholar Nachmanides comments on the term "flowing", stating that it is the key word in the sentence. Just as livestock produce higher quantities of milk when they are living in fertile pastures, The Promised Land is a particularly fertile place – one that is symptomatic of the greater good.
In ancient Indian records, the combination of yogurt and honey is called "the food of the gods". Persian traditions hold that "Abraham owed his fecundity and longevity to the regular ingestion of yogurt".
Analysis of the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus genome indicates that the bacterium may have originated on the surface of a plant. Milk may have become spontaneously and unintentionally exposed to it through contact with plants, or bacteria may have been transferred from the udder of domestic milk-producing animals.
Whatever the spelling, the word is usually pronounced with a short o in England and Wales, and with a long o in Scotland, North America, Australia, New Zealand, Ireland and South Africa.
Historically there have also been cases of yogurt being spelt with a "J" instead of a "Y" (e.g. jogurt and joghurt) due to alternative transliteration methods. However, there has been a decline in these variations in English speaking countries, but in certain European countries it is still commonly spelt with a "J". Most people tend to spell in the manner shown on the packaging of the major brands in their country.
In English, there are several variations of the spelling of the word, including yogurt, yoghurt and to a lesser extent yoghourt, yogourt, yaghourt, yahourth, yoghurd, joghourt, and jogourt. In the United Kingdom and Australia, yogurt and yoghurt are both current, yogurt being used by the Australian and British dairy councils, and yoghourt is an uncommon alternative. In the United States, yogurt is the usual spelling and yoghurt a minor variant. In New Zealand, yoghurt is preferred by the New Zealand Oxford Dictionary. In Canada, yogurt is most common among English speakers although "yoghurt" is also used, but many brands use yogourt, since it is an acceptable spelling in both English and French, the official languages of Canada.
The word is derived from Turkish: yoğurt, and is usually related to the verb yoğurmak: "to be curdled or coagulated; to thicken". or yuğur- "id" and the suffix -t. The letter ğ was traditionally rendered as "gh" in transliterations of Turkish prior to 1928. In older Turkish, the letter denoted a voiced velar fricative /ɣ/, but this sound is elided between back vowels in modern Turkish, in which the word is pronounced , or .
Etymology and spelling
- Etymology and spelling 1
- History 2
Nutritional value 3
- Health effects 3.1
Varieties and presentation 4
- Sweetened and flavored yogurt 4.1
- Strained yogurt 4.2
- Beverages 4.3
- Plant-milk yogurt 5
- Making yogurt at home 6
See also 7
- Other fermented dairy products 7.1
- References 8
- External links 9
In Western culture, the milk is first heated to about 85 °C (185 °F) to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds. In some places, such as parts of India and Bangladesh, curds are a desired component and milk is boiled. After heating, the milk is allowed to cool to about 45 °C (113 °F). The bacterial culture is added, and the temperature of 45 °C is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation.