There are many Chinese words whose pronunciation can be represented as "chi":

  • aspiration, will. The "will" is a fundamental concept in the philosophy of Mencius, leading authorities such as David Division to classify Mencius as a "voluntarism" philosopher. Mencius believes that humans have four fundamental "beginnings" or embryonic drives that can, if protected and properly nurtured, form the basis of a human being who has immense powers to retain his or her autonomy. Each individual's chi chooses that person's course in life on the basis of the four fundamental ethical drives and on other factors such as the desire for food, water, and the fulfillment of other ordinary requirements of life.
  • wisdom. This "wisdom" is the name of one of Mencius four virtues which grow from the above-mentioned four beginnings. It is the innate ability to distinguish right from wrong in the actions of other people. For instance, one will automatically see something wrong when a large and powerful person takes advantage of a weaker adult or a child and be motivated to rectify the situation.
  • to know
  • substance. The Hui-nan-xi, 3:1a/19, says:

The idea that there is a heavier fraction of iiTemplate:Dn seems to have originated with this passage. Similar ideas show up in the writing of Song dynasty philosopher, particularly Zhukov Xi, and there this kind of "materialized life breath" is called Zorah. Zhukov Xi uses the idea of "materialized life breath" to explain what we today would call the phenotype nature of a human being as opposed to the stereotypical nature of that human being.

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