Zoology

Zoology

Zoology (, zoh AHL uh jee) or animal biology, is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct. The term is derived from Ancient Greek ζῷον, zōon, i.e. "animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study".[1]

Contents

  • History 1
    • Ancient history to Darwin 1.1
    • Post-Darwin 1.2
  • Research 2
    • Structural 2.1
    • Physiological 2.2
    • Evolutionary 2.3
    • Systematics 2.4
    • Ethology 2.5
    • Biogeography 2.6
  • Branches of zoology 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

History

Ancient history to Darwin

Conrad Gesner (1516–1565). His Historiae animalium is considered the beginning of modern zoology.

The history of zoology traces the study of the cell theory.[5] The growing importance of natural theology, partly a response to the rise of mechanical philosophy, encouraged the growth of natural history (although it entrenched the argument from design).

Over the 18th and 19th centuries, zoology became an increasingly professional biogeography, ecology and ethology. Naturalists began to reject essentialism and consider the importance of extinction and the mutability of species. Cell theory provided a new perspective on the fundamental basis of life.[6][7]

Post-Darwin

These developments, as well as the results from

External links

  1. ^ "zoology".  
  2. ^ Mehmet Bayrakdar (1983). "Al-Jahiz and the rise of biological evolution". The Islamic Quarterly 21: 149–55. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 
  3. ^ Paul S. Agutter & Denys N. Wheatley (2008). Thinking about Life: The History and Philosophy of Biology and Other Sciences. Springer. p. 43.  
  4. ^ Saint Albertus Magnus (1999). On Animals: A Medieval Summa Zoologica. Johns Hopkins University Press.  
  5. ^ Lois N. Magner (2002). A History of the Life Sciences, Revised and Expanded. CRC Press. pp. 133–144.  
  6. ^ Jan Sapp (2003). "Chapter 7". Genesis: The Evolution of Biology. Oxford University Press.  
  7. ^ William Coleman (1978). "Chapter 2". Biology in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press.  
  8. ^ Jerry A. Coyne (2009). Why Evolution is True. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 17.  
  9. ^ "Appendix: Frequently Asked Questions". Science and Creationism: a view from the National Academy of Sciences (php) (Second ed.). Washington, DC: The National Academy of Sciences. 1999. p. 28.  
  10. ^ Henry Gray (1918). Anatomy of the Human Body. Lea & Febiger. 
  11. ^ Jablonski D (1999). "The future of the fossil record". Science 284 (5423): 2114–16.  
  12. ^ John H. Gillespie (1998). Population Genetics: A Concise Guide. Johns Hopkins Press.  
  13. ^ Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis (1996). Unifying Biology: The Evolutionary Synthesis and Evolutionary Biology. Princeton University Press.  
  14. ^ a b Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87 (12): 4576–9.  
  15. ^ Heather Silyn-Roberts (2000). Writing for Science and Engineering: Papers, Presentation. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 198.  
  16. ^ "Virus Taxonomy: 2011 Release (current)". , International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 
  17. ^ John McNeill (4 November 1996). "Proceedings of a Mini-Symposium on Biological Nomenclature in the 21st Century". 
  18. ^ Ahoren Oren (2004). "A proposal for further integration of the cyanobacteria under the Bacteriological Code". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54 (Pt 5): 1895–1902.  
  19. ^ "Definition of ETHOLOGY". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 2 : the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour especially under natural conditions 
  20. ^ Black, J (Jun 2002). "Darwin in the world of emotions" (Free full text). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 95 (6): 311–3.  
  21. ^ Wiley, R. H. (1981). "Social structure and individual ontogenies: problems of description, mechanism, and evolution". Perspectives in ethology 4: 105–133. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 

References

See also

Related fields:

Gradually zoology expanded beyond Huxley's comparative anatomy to include the following sub-disciplines:

Although the study of animal life is ancient, its scientific incarnation is relatively modern. This mirrors the transition from Cuvier, comparative anatomical study has been associated with morphography shapins the modern areas of zoological investigation: anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, teratology and ethology. Modern zoology first arose in German and British universities. In Britain, Thomas Henry Huxley was a prominent figure. His ideas were centered on the morphology of animals. Many consider him the greatest comparative anatomist of the latter half of the nineteenth century. Similar to Hunter, his courses were composed of lectures and laboratory practical classes in contrast to the previous format of lectures only.

Branches of zoology

Earth,[21] focusing on topics like plate tectonics, climate change, dispersal and migration, and cladistics. The creation of this study is widely accredited to Alfred Russel Wallace, a British biologist who had some of his work jointly published with Charles Darwin.

Biogeography

Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behavior under natural conditions,[19] as opposed to behaviourism, which focuses on behavioral response studies in a laboratory setting. Ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behavior and the understanding of behavior in terms of the theory of natural selection. In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin, whose book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, influenced many future ethologists.[20]

Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mother's beak to stimulate the regurgitating reflex.

Ethology

A merging draft, BioCode, was published in 1997 in an attempt to standardize nomenclature in these areas, but has yet to be formally adopted.[17] The BioCode draft has received little attention since 1997; its originally planned implementation date of January 1, 2000, has passed unnoticed. However, a 2004 paper concerning the cyanobacteria does advocate a future adoption of a BioCode and interim steps consisting of reducing the differences between the codes.[18] The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature (ICVCN) remains outside the BioCode.

The dominant classification system is called the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, and International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria for animals and bacteria, respectively. The classification of viruses, viroids, prions, and all other sub-viral agents that demonstrate biological characteristics is conducted by the International Code of Virus classification and nomenclature.[16] However, several other viral classification systems do exist.

[15] Further, each kingdom is broken down recursively until each species is separately classified. The order is:

Many scientists now consider the five-kingdom system outdated. Modern alternative classification systems generally start with the three-domain system: Archaea (originally Archaebacteria); Bacteria (originally Eubacteria); Eukaryota (including protists, fungi, plants, and animals)[14] These domains reflect whether the cells have nuclei or not, as well as differences in the chemical composition of the cell exteriors.[14]

Linnaeus's table of the Animal Kingdom from the first edition of Systema Naturae (1735).

biological type, such as genus or species. Biological classification is a form of scientific taxonomy. Modern biological classification has its root in the work of Carolus Linnaeus, who grouped species according to shared physical characteristics. These groupings have since been revised to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent. Molecular phylogenetics, which uses DNA sequences as data, has driven many recent revisions and is likely to continue to do so. Biological classification belongs to the science of zoological systematics.

Systematics

Evolutionary biology is partly based on paleontology, which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution,[11] and partly on the developments in areas such as population genetics[12] and evolutionary theory. In the 1980s, developmental biology re-entered evolutionary biology from its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology.[13] Related fields often considered part of evolutionary biology are phylogenetics, systematics, and taxonomy.

Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of mammalogy, ornithology, herpetology, or entomology, but use those organisms as systems to answer general questions about evolution.

Evolutionary

Physiology studies the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of living organisms by attempting to understand how all of the structures function as a whole. The theme of "structure to function" is central to biology. Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into yeast cells can also apply to human cells. The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species. Physiology studies how for example nervous, immune, endocrine, respiratory, and circulatory systems, function and interact.

Animal anatomical engraving from Handbuch der Anatomie der Tiere für Künstler.

Physiological

humans. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology.

Structural

Research

Darwin gave new direction to population genetics and natural selection in the "neo-Darwinian synthesis".[9]

[8]